An Analytical Framework of Educational Development and Reform in Developing Countries: Interaction Among Actors in the Context of Decentralization

  • Yuto Kitamura
  • Yasushi Hirosato
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 13)

Effort toward diffusing basic education in developing countries is a widely shared international agenda through the designation of the Education for All (EFA) goals and the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Diverse actors of the international community are promoting educational development aid. Influenced by such international debate and support, many developing countries are upholding as their policy goals such issues as the diffusion of primary education and the elimination of the gender gap relating to educational opportunities. Education reforms aimed at realizing these outcomes are ongoing. What has become accepted more recently as the model for international cooperation in the education and other sectors is the effort to harmonize aid and to make it compatible with the plans and strategies of the developing countries themselves, thereby attempting to establish the ownership of developing countries and the partnership among actors, as was encapsulated in the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness adopted in 2005 (OECD High Level Forum 2005), and discussed in Chapter 1.

Nevertheless, it has to be said that in many developing countries there remains a long road toward achieving these goals. The reasons for this are multifarious, depending on each country's particular circumstances, but a common thread among all countries is the frailty of the capacity of the education sector in terms of its systems, organizations, and human resources. To achieve the educational development goals as typified by the EFA goals, the key issue is how to strengthen such capacity. In educational development aid today, it has become essential to consider the capacity development of the entire education sector. To encourage capacity development and to improve the learning environment in a sustained manner, what we need is improvement of the governance structure, including the promotion of decentralization and the reduction of transaction cost.


Education Reform Capacity Development Educational Development Donor Country Diverse Actor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bartholomew, A. and Lister, S. (2002). Managing Aid in Vietnam: A Country Case Study. OECD DAC Task Force on Donor Practice.Google Scholar
  2. Bray, M. and Thomas, R.M. (1995). “Levels of Comparison in Educational Studies: Different Insights from Different Literatures and the Value of Multilevel Analyses,” Harvard Educational Review, 65(3): 472–490.Google Scholar
  3. Corrales, J. (1999). The Politics of Education Reform: Bolstering the Supply and Demand–Overcoming Institutional Blocks. Washington, D.C.: The Education Reform and Management Series Vol. II, No.1.Google Scholar
  4. Crouch, L. and Healey, F.H. (1997). Education Reform Support, Volume One: Overview and Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Office of Sustainable Development, Bureau for Africa, USAID.Google Scholar
  5. Crouch, L. and DeStefano, J. (1997). Education Reform Support, Volume Five: Strategy Development and Project Design. Washington, D.C.: Office of Sustainable Development, Bureau for Africa, USAID.Google Scholar
  6. Hirosato, Y. (2001). “New Challenges for Educational Development and Cooperation in Asia and the Pacific: Building Indigenous Capacity for Education Reforms,” Journal of International Cooperation in Education, 4(2): 1–24.Google Scholar
  7. Moulton, J. et al. (2001). Paradigm Lost?: The Implementation of Basic Education Reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, D.C.: Technical Paper No. 109, USAID.Google Scholar
  8. OECD High Level Forum (2005). Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness: Ownership, Harmonization, Alignment, Results and Mutual Accountability. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  9. Pandey, R.S. (2000). Going to Scale with Education Reform: India's District Primary Education Program, 1995–99. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, Education Reform and Management Publication Series, Vol. 1, No. 4 (July).Google Scholar
  10. Riddell, A.R. (1999). “Evaluations of Educational Reform Programmes in Developing Countries: Whose Life is it Anyway?” International Journal of Educational Development, 19(6): 383–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Samoff, J. (1999a). “Institutionalizing International Influence,” in Arnove, R.F. and Torres, C.A. (eds.), Comparative Education: The Dialectic of the Global and the Local. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 51–89.Google Scholar
  12. Samoff, J. (1999b). “Education Sector Analysis in Africa: Limited National Control and Even Less National Ownership.” International Journal of Educational Development, 19(4–5): 249–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Smith, H. (2005). “Ownership and Capacity: Do Current Donor Approaches Help or Hinder the Achievement of International and National Targets for Education?” International Journal of Educational Development, 25(4): 445–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. UNESCO (2000). The Dakar Framework for Action–Education for All: Meeting our Collective Commitments. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  15. Watkins, K. (2000). The Oxfam Education Report. Oxford, UK: Oxfam GB.Google Scholar
  16. Williams, J.H. and Cummings, W.K. (2005). Policy-Making for Education Reform in Developing Countries: Contexts and Processes, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Education.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuto Kitamura
    • Yasushi Hirosato

      There are no affiliations available

      Personalised recommendations