Transforming Academic Practice: Human Resource Challenges

  • Ellen Hazelkorn
  • Amanda Moynihan
Part of the Higher Education Dynamics book series (HEDY, volume 31)


This chapter argues that there are particular characteristics of academic work and institutional culture in UASs across Europe. Divided into three sections, the first two sections describe (1) academic employment conditions across selected UASs and (2) the teaching and research environment. Finally, (3) discusses the tensions and challenges that arise as UASs attempt to develop a research culture. The chapter draws variously on a subset of country experiences and explores the extent to which these developments transcend institutions and countries and should be considered part of a wider sectoral experience. Finally, because UASs – despite differences in origin and mission – are competing with universities for research funding and prestige, comparisons, where appropriate, between sectors will help contextualise the UAS experience.


Academic Staff Academic Work Institutional Culture Staff Development Research Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Special thanks are due to colleagues from contributing countries for all their help assembling the comparative information, and to Brian O’Neill and Kevin Lalor for their helpful comments and suggestions during the course of writing this chapter. All errors remain ours.


  1. Adams, D. (2000). Views of academic work. Teacher Development, 4(1), 68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghion, P., Dewatripont, M., Hoxby, C., Mas-Colell, A., & Sapir, A. (2008). Higher aspirations: An agenda for reforming European universities. Brussels: Bruegel Blueprint Series.Google Scholar
  3. Altbach, P. G. (2000). The deterioration of the academic estate: International patterns of academic work. In P. G. Altbach (Ed.), The changing academic workplace: Comparative perspectives (pp. 1–33). Boston: Centre for International Higher Education, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.Google Scholar
  4. Berrell, M. (1998). The place of teaching research and scholarship in newly established universities. Higher Education Management, 10, 77–93.Google Scholar
  5. Bland, C., & Ruffin, M. (1992). Characteristics of a productive research environment: Literature review. Academic Medicine, 67, 385–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Weert, E. (2001). The end of public employment in Dutch higher education? In J. Enders (Ed.), Academic staff in Europe (pp. 195–216). Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  7. EU. (1999). European Council Directive 1999/70/EC of 28 June 1999 concerning the framework agreement on fixed-term work. Retrieved January 29, 2008, from!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31999L0070&model=guichett.
  8. EU. (1997). European Council Directive 97/81/EC of 15 December 1997 concerning the Framework Agreement on part-time work. Retrieved September 29, 2008, from!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31997L0081&model=guichett.
  9. Enders, J. (2001). Between state control and academic capitalism: A comparative perspective on academic staff in Europe. In J. Enders (Ed.), Academic staff in Europe (pp. 1–23). Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  10. Enders, J., & de Weert, E. (Eds.). (2004). The international attractiveness of the academic workplace in Europe. Frankfurt am Main: Gewerkschaft Erzieung und Wissenschaft.Google Scholar
  11. Enders, J., & Teichler, U. (1997). A victim of their own success? Employment and working conditions of academic staff in comparative perspective. Higher Education, 34, 347–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Farnham, D. (1999). Managing universities and regulating academic labour markets. In D. Farnham (Ed.), Managing academic staff in changing university systems: International trends and comparisons (pp.15–43). Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education.Google Scholar
  13. Gellert, C. (1994). Diversification in the tertiary sector – new developments in the EU’s member states. Introductory text for conference of the Federal Ministry of Education and Science, Bonn. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  14. Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., & Trow, M. (1994). The new production of knowledge. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Hazelkorn, E. (2005). Developing research in new institutions. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  16. Hazelkorn, E. (2008). Motivating individuals: Growing research from a ‘fragile base’. Tertiary Education and Management, 14, 151–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huisman, J., de Weert, E., & Bartelse, J. (2002). A European perspective on academic careers. Journal of Higher Education, 73, 141–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. IOTI – Institutes of Technology Ireland. (2008). Framework for the development of research in the institutes of technology, 2008–2013. Ireland: IOTI.Google Scholar
  19. Jones, G., & Lengkeek, N. (1997). Research development: The experience of the new university’. Research and the new tomorrow (pp. 223–239). Auckland: UNITEC Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  20. Kahn-Freund, O., (1977) Labour and the Law. 2nd ed. London: Stevens.Google Scholar
  21. Kyvik, S., Skodvin, O. J., Smeby, J. C., & Sundnes, S. L. (2001). Expansion, reorganization and discontent among academic staff: The Norwegian case. In J. Enders (Ed.), Academic staff in Europe (pp. 217–232). Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  22. Lepori, B., & Attar, L. (2006). Research strategies and framework conditions for research in Swiss universities of applied sciences. Lugano: KTI/CTI.Google Scholar
  23. Lillis, D. (2007) Reconciling Organizational Realities with the Research Mission of the Irish Institutes of Technology. Paper presented to CHER conference. Dublin.Google Scholar
  24. Marginson, S. (2000). Rethinking academic work in the global era. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 22, 24–35.Google Scholar
  25. OECD. (2009). Policy responses to the economic crisis: Investing in innovation for long-term growth. Paris. Retrieved October 23, 2009, from
  26. Olsen, T. B., Kyvik, S., & Hovdhaugen, E. (2005). The promotion to full professor – through competition or by individual competence? Tertiary Education and Management, 11, 299–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pratt, J. (1997). The polytechnic experiment: 1965–1992. London: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Pratt, M., Margaritis, D., & Coy, D. (1999). Developing a research culture in a university faculty. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 21, 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rhoades, G. (1998). Managed professionals: Unionized faculty and restructuring academic labor. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  30. RIHE. (2008). The changing academic profession in international comparative and quantitative perspectives. Report on the international conference on the Changing Academic Profession Project, 2008. Hiroshima University, Hiroshima.Google Scholar
  31. Scott, P. (1995). The meanings of mass higher education. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Slaughter, S., & Leslie, L. (1997). Academic capitalism: Politics, policies, and the entrepreneurial university. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  33. Taylor, J. S., Ferreira, J. B., Machado, M. L., & Santiago, R. (2008). Non-university higher education in Europe. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Taylor, J. S., Graca, M., de Lourdes Machado, M., & Sousa, S. (2007). Portugal: Adapting in order to promote change (pp. 211–227). In W. Locke & U. Teichler (Eds.), The changing conditions for academic work and careers in select countries. Kassel: University of Kassel.Google Scholar
  35. Välimaa, J. (2001). The changing nature of academic employment in Finnish higher education. In J. Enders (Ed.), Academic staff in Europe (pp. 67–89). Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  36. Välimaa, J., & Neuvonen-Rauhala, M. L. (2008). Polytechnics in Finnish higher education. In J. S. Taylor, J. B. Ferreira, M. L. Machado, & R. Santiago (Eds.), Non-university higher education in Europe (pp. 77–98). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Verhoeven, J. C. (2008). Questioning the binary divide: Non-university higher education in Flanders (Belgium). In J. S. Taylor, J. B. Ferreira, M. L. Machado, & R. Santiago (Eds.), Non-university higher education in Europe (pp. 43–75). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Verhoeven, J. C., & Beuselinck, I. (1999). Belgium: Diverging professions in twin communities. In D. Farnham (Ed.), Managing academic staff in changing university systems: International trends and comparisons (pp. 35–57). Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Higher Education Policy Research Unit (HEPRU), Dublin Institute of TechnologyDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations