Transforming Higher Education

  • Alberto Amaral
Part of the Higher Education Dynamics book series (HEDY, volume 24)

At least in Europe and until the last decades of the 20th century it was generally accepted that academics were particularly gifted to manage their own affairs (Amaral et al. 2003a). The idea of the Humboldtian university relied strongly on individual academic freedom, an idea echoed by Karl Jaspers, as cited by Kenneth Wilson:

The university is a community of scholars and students engaged in the task of seeking truth. It derives its autonomy from the idea of academic freedom, a privilege granted to it by state and society which entails the obligation to teach truth in defiance of all internal and external attempts to curtail it. (Wilson 1989: 38)

Keywords

Europe Defend Metaphor Ethos 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altbach, P. (ed.). The International Academic Profession: Portraits of Fourteen Countries. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1996.Google Scholar
  2. Amaral, A., O. Fulton and I.M. Larsen. “A Managerial Revolution?” In Amaral, A., V.L. Meek and I.M. Larsen (eds). The Higher Education Managerial Revolution? Dordrecht, Kluwer, 2003a, 275–296.Google Scholar
  3. Amaral, A., A. Magalhães and R. Santiago. “The Rise of Academic Managerialism in Portugal.” In Amaral, A., V.L. Meek and I.M. Larsen (eds). The Higher Education Managerial Revolution?Dordrecht, Kluwer, 2003b, 131–153.Google Scholar
  4. Amaral, A. and A. Magalhães. “Market Competition, Public Good and State Interference.” In Enders, J. and B. Jongbloed (eds). Public-Private Dynamics in Higher Education: Expectations, Developments and Outcomes. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 2007, 89–112.Google Scholar
  5. Askling, B. and B. Christensen. “Towards the ‘Learning Organisation’: Implications for Institutional Governance and Leadership.” Higher Education Management 12.2 (2000): 17–41.Google Scholar
  6. Ball, S.J. “Big Policies/Small World: An Introduction to International Perspectives in Education Policy.” Comparative Education 34.2 (1998): 119–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bleiklie, I., R. Hhøstaker and A. Vabø. Policy and Practice in Higher Education. Reforming Norwegian Universities. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2000.Google Scholar
  8. Bleiklie, I. “Political Dimensions of Evaluation and Managerialism: University Organization and Changing Knowledge Regimes.” In Managerialism and Evaluation in Higher Education, UNESCO Forum Occasional Paper Series, Paper n.° 7. Paris: UNESCO, 2004, 39–67.Google Scholar
  9. Cerych, L. and P. Sabatier. Great Expectations and Mixed Performance: The Implementation of Higher Education Reforms in Europe. Trentham: Trentham Books, 1986.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, B. “Governing the Higher Education System.” In Shattock, M. (ed.). The Structure and Governance of Higher Education. Guilford: Society for Research into Higher Education, 1983a, 19–42.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, B. The Higher Education System. Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspective.Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983b.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, B. Creating Entrepreneurial Universities. London: Pergamon, 1998.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, B. The Entrepreneurial University: New Foundations for Collegiality, Autonomy and Achievement, Paper presented at the IMHE General Conference 2000, Paris, September 2000.Google Scholar
  14. Clarke, J. and J. Newman. The Managerial State: Power, Politics and Ideology in the Remaining of Social Welfare. London: Sage, 1997.Google Scholar
  15. De Boer, H. “Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow and Blue?” In Amaral, A., V.L. Meek and I.M. Larsen (eds).The Higher Education Managerial Revolution? Dordrecht, Kluwer, 2003, 89–108.Google Scholar
  16. Deem, R. “Globalisation, new managerialism, academic capitalism and entrepreneurialism in universities:Is the local dimension important”? Comparative Education 37.1 (2001): 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Denhardt, R.B. and J. Denhardt. (2000). “The New Public Service: Serving Rather than Steering.” Public Administration Review 60.6 (2000): 1–24.Google Scholar
  18. Dill, D. “Through Deming's Eyes: A Cross-national Analysis of Quality Assurance Policies in Higher Education.” Quality in Higher Education 1.1 (1995): 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dill, D. Academic Accountability and University Adaptation: The Architecture of an Academic Learning Organisation. Higher Education 38.2 (1999): 127–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dill, D. and B. Sporn (eds) Emerging Patterns of Social Demand and University Reform: Through a Glass Darkly. New York: Pergamon, 1995.Google Scholar
  21. Duke, C. The Learning University. Towards a New Paradigm? Buckingham: SHRE and Open Press University, 1992.Google Scholar
  22. Eggins, H. “Conclusions.” In Ball, C. and H. Eggins (eds). Higher Education into the 1990s: New Dimensions. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press,1989, 124–132.Google Scholar
  23. Ferlie, E., L. Ashburner, L. Fitzgerald and A. Pettigrew. The New Public Management in Action. London: Sage, 1996.Google Scholar
  24. Fulton, O. (2002). “Higher Education Governance in the UK: Change and Continuity.” In Amaral, A.,G. Jones and B. Karseth (eds). Governing Higher Education: National Perspectives on Institutional Governance. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 187–211.Google Scholar
  25. Fulton, O. (2003). “Managerialism in UK Universities: Unstable Hybridity and the Complications of Implementation.” In Amaral, A., V.L. Meek and I.M. Larsen (eds). The Higher Education Managerial Revolution? Dordrecht, Kluwer, 2003, 155–178.Google Scholar
  26. Green, M.F. and F.M. Hayward. “Force for Change.” In Green, M.F. (ed.) Transforming Higher Education: Views from Leaders around the World, Phoenix: Oryx, 1997, 1–27.Google Scholar
  27. Harley, S. and P. Lowe. Academics Divided: The Research Assessment Exercise and the Academic Labour Process. Education — Line, 2003.Google Scholar
  28. Henkel, M. “Higher Education.” In Laffin, M. (ed.). Beyond Bureaucracy: The Professionals in the Contemporary Public Sector. Ashgate: Aldershot, 1998, 183–200.Google Scholar
  29. Henkel, M. and B. Little. Changing Relationships Between Higher Education and the State. London/Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley, 1999.Google Scholar
  30. Henkel, M. Academic Identities and Policy, Change in Higher Education. London/Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley, 2000.Google Scholar
  31. Henkel, M. “The Impacts of Evaluation upon Academic Identities and the Links with Managerialism. In Managerialism and Evaluation in Higher Education.” UNESCO Forum Occasional Paper Series,Paper n.° 7. Paris: UNESCO, 2004, 86–101.Google Scholar
  32. Henkel, M. “Changing Conceptions of University Autonomy in 21st Century Knowledge Economies: The Case of Britain.” Paper presented at a CIPES seminar, University of Aveiro, May 2007.Google Scholar
  33. Husen, T. “The Idea of the University: Changing Roles, Current Crisis and Future Challenges.” In Husen,T. (ed.) The Role of the University: A Global Perspective, Tokyo: United Nations University, 1994,7–31.Google Scholar
  34. Jarratt Report. Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals Report of the Steering Committee for Efficiency Studies in Universities. London: CVCP, 1985.Google Scholar
  35. Jones, C. “Social Work: Regulation and Managerialism.” In Exworthy, M. and S. Halford (eds).Professionals and the New Managerialism in the Public Sector. Buckingham: Open University Press,1999, 37–49.Google Scholar
  36. Kean, L. and R. Scase. Local Government Management: The Rhetoric and Reality of Change.Buckingham: Open University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  37. Kogan, M. “Academic and Administrative Interface.” In Henkel, M. and B. Little (eds). Changing Relationships Between Higher Education and the State. London: Jessica Kingsley, 1999, 263–279.Google Scholar
  38. Kogan, M. “Frame-work paper: The issues. In Managerialism and Evaluation in Higher Education” UNESCO Forum Occasional Paper Series, Paper n.° 7. Paris: UNESCO, 2004, 2–10.Google Scholar
  39. Kraak, A. “Policy Ambiguity and Slippage: Higher Education Under the New State, 1994–2001.” CHET Commissioned Paper, http://www.chet.org.za/papers.asp, 2001.
  40. Leicht, K. and M. Fennell. Professional Work: A Sociological Approach. London: Blackwell, 2001.Google Scholar
  41. Lyotard, J.F. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge University of Manchester, Manchester,1984.Google Scholar
  42. Maassen, P. “Shifts in Governance Arrangements.” In Amaral, A., V.L. Meek and I.M. Larsen (eds). The Higher Education Managerial Revolution? Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003, 31–53.Google Scholar
  43. Maassen, P. “Organisational Strategies and Governance Structures in Dutch Universities.” In Amaral, A.,G. Jones and B. Karseth (eds). Governing Higher Education: National Perspectives on Institutional Governance. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2002, 23–41.Google Scholar
  44. Maassen, P. and F. van Vught, “Alternative Models of Governmental Steering in Higher Education.” In L.Goedegebuure and F. van Vught (eds). Comparative Policy Studies in Higher Education, Utrecht:Center for Higher Education Policy Studies, 1994, 35–65.Google Scholar
  45. Massy, W. “Markets in Higher Education: Do They Promote Internal Efficiency?” In Teixeira, P., B. Jongbloed, D. Dill and A. Amaral (eds). Markets in Higher Education: Rhetoric or Reality? Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2004a, 13–35.Google Scholar
  46. Massy, W. “Collegium Economicum: Why Institutions Do What They Do?” Change 36.4 (2004b): 26–35.Google Scholar
  47. Meek, V.L. “On the Road to Mediocrity? Governance and Management of Australian Higher Education in the Market Place.” In Amaral, A., G. Jones and B. Karseth (eds). Governing Higher Education:National Perspectives on Institutional Governance. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2002, 235–260.Google Scholar
  48. Miller, H.D.R. The Management of Changes in Universities. Buckingham: SHRE/Open University, 1995.Google Scholar
  49. Moodie, G. and R. Eustace. Power and Authority in British Universities. London: Allen & Unwin, 1974.Google Scholar
  50. Neave, G. ȁThe Policies of Quality: Development in Higher Education in Western Europe 1992–1994.”European Journal of Education 29.2 (1994): 115–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Neave, G. “The Evaluative State Reconsidered.” European Journal of Education 33.3 (1998): 265–284.Google Scholar
  52. Neave, G. and F. van Vught. Prometheus Bound: The Changing Relationship Between Government and Higher Education Institutions in Western Europe. Oxford: Pergamon, 1991.Google Scholar
  53. Nybom, T. “The von Humboldt Legacy and the Contemporary European University.” In Eric DeCorte (ed.). Excellence in Higher Education. Glasgow: Portland Press, 2002, 17–32.Google Scholar
  54. Oliver, C. “Strategic Responses to Institutional Processes.” Academy of Management Review, 16.1 (1991): 145“179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Osborne, D. and T. Gaebler. Re-inventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Government. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 2002.Google Scholar
  56. Pan, S.-Y. “Intertwining of Academia and Officialdom and University Autonomy: Experience from Tsinghua University in China.” Higher Education Policy 20.2 (2007): 121–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pressman, J.L. and A. Wildavsky. Implementation: How Great Expectations in Washington Are Dashed in Oakland; Or, Why It's Amazing That Federal Programs Work At All. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  58. Reed, M. “New Managerialism, Professional Power and Organisational Governance in UK Universities:A Review and Assessment.” In Amaral, A., G. Jones and B. Karseth (eds). Governing Higher Education: National Perspectives on Institutional Governance. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2002, 163–186.Google Scholar
  59. Reed, M. and P. Anthony. “Between an Ideological Rock and an Organisational Hard Place: NHS Management in the 1980's and 1990's.” In Clarke, T. and C. Pitelis (eds). The Political Economy of Privatisation. London: Routledge, 1993, 185–204.Google Scholar
  60. Richardson, G. and J. Fielden. Measuring the Grip of the State: The Relationship Between Governments and Universities in Selected Commonwealth Countries. CHEMS, UK, 1997.Google Scholar
  61. [Robbins Report] Higher Education: Report of the Committee appointed by the Prime Minister under the Chairmanship of Lord Robbins 1961–63. Cmnd. 2154 London: HMSO, 1963.Google Scholar
  62. Rosa, M.J. and A. Amaral. “A Self-assessment of Higher Education Institutions from the Perspective of the EFQM Excellence Model.” In Westerheijden, D., B. Stensaker and M.J. Rosa (eds). Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Trends in Regulation, Translation and Transformation. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005, 181–218.Google Scholar
  63. Santiago, R., T. Carvalho, A. Amaral and V.L. Meek. “Changing patterns in the middle management of higher education institutions: the case of Portugal.” Higher Education 52.2 (2006): 215–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Slaugther, S. and L. Leslie. Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies and the Entrepreneurial University.Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1997.Google Scholar
  65. Smith, D., P. Scott, J. Bocock and C. Bargh. “Vice-Chancellors and Executive Leadership in UK Universities. New Roles and Relationship?” In Henkel, M. and B. Little (eds). Changing Relationships Between Higher Education and the State. London: Jessica Kingsley, 1999, 280–306.Google Scholar
  66. Sporn, B. (1999). Adaptive University Structures: An Analysis of Adaptation to Socioeconomic Environments of US and European Universities. London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  67. Tapper, T. and B. Salter (2004). Understanding Governance and Policy Change in British Higher Education, Oxford CHEPS Occasional Paper no. 11, http://oxcheps.new.ox.ac.uk/MainSite%20pages/papers.html
  68. Trow, M. (1996). Trust, Markets and Accountability in Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective.Higher Education Policy 9.4, 309–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Trowler, P.R. (1988). Academics Responding to Change: New Higher Education Frameworks and Academic Cultures. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Tunnermann, C. (1996). A New Vision of Higher Education. Higher Education Policy 9.1, 11–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Van Vught, F.A. (1989). Innovations and Reforms in Higher Education. In Van Vught, F.A. (ed.). Government Strategies and Innovation in Higher Education. London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 47–72.Google Scholar
  72. Weber, L. (2008). If You Believe You Are Good Try Institutional Evaluation! In Amaral, A., Rovio-Johansson, A., Rosa, M.J. and Westerheijden, D. (2008). Essays in Supportive Peer Review, NewYork: NOVA Science Publishers, pp. 253–262. (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  73. Whitchurch, C. (2006). Professional Managers in UK Higher Education: Preparing for Complex Futures (interim report). In Research and Development Series. London: Leadership Foundation for Higher Education.Google Scholar
  74. Wilson, K. (1989). The Pattern, Range and Purpose of Higher Education: A Moral Perspective. In Ball,C. and H. Eggins (eds). Higher Education into the 1990s: New Dimensions. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press, pp. 38–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Amaral

    There are no affiliations available

    Personalised recommendations