Advertisement

Biosecurity in the Movement of Commodities as a Component of Global Food Security

Chapter
Part of the Plant Pathology in the 21st Century book series (ICPP, volume 3)

Summary

Biosecurity (regulatory regimes for food safety, animal and plant health, and genetically modified organisms) results in barriers to trade. Plant pest introductions cause substantial losses; growth of trade and international travel increases the risk of new introductions. Demand for agricultural produce follows world population growth and consumption pattern changes; international agricultural trade is vital to access to food. National and international biosecurity is fragmented, although nationally consolidation occurs. International biosecurity has changed over the last 15 years: the International Plant Protection Convention, the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius (Food Safety) and the World Organization for Animal Health, set Standards for national Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures, the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement seeks to avoid arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination among countries; the Convention on Biological Diversity, its Cartagena Protocol and the Biological Weapons Convention also address aspects of biosecurity: internationally, cooperation appears, at present, to be the most promising action. Developed and a limited number of mid-income developing countries raise phytosanitary trade concerns in the WTO SPS Committee. Certain food safety measures appear to become stricter, private standards more elaborate and small farmers have difficulties in adapting. Instead many phytosanitary standards aim to reduce unjustified national measures. National plant health is often under-funded, in particular non-export components including phytosanitary protection of biodiversity and natural ecosystems. Technical assistance to developing countries remains very limited. Plant health needs expertise in identification and epidemiology. Regional cooperation is vital. Opportunities exist for international action on pest free areas and certification of laboratories. It is unlikely that effects of climate change can be considered in Pest Risk Analysis.

Keywords

Biosecurity foodsecurity trade sanitary and phytosanitary measures and standards plant health food safety 

References

  1. Bruinsma J (ed) (2003) World agriculture: towards 2015/2030. An FAO perspective. Earthscan Publications, London, 432 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Convention on Biological Diversity (2002) Report of the Sixth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. UNEP/CBD/COP/6/20. CBD Secretariat Montreal, 342 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. FAO (1997) International plant protection convention (New revised text as approved by the FAO Conference at its 29th session –November 1997). FAO, Rome, 16 pp. https://www.ippc.int
  4. FAO (2007a) FAO biosecurity toolkit. FAO, Rome,127 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. FAO (2007b) The State of Food and Agriculture 2007. Part II. World and Regional Review, a long term perspective. FAO, Rome, 135 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. FAO (2008a) Third session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures. Report. FAO, Rome, 25 pp + 20 AppendicesGoogle Scholar
  7. FAO (2008b) Climate-related transboundary pests and diseases. FAO, Rome, 21 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Frederiksen RA, Renfro BL (1977) Global status of maize downy mildew. Annu Rev Phytopathol 15:240–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. IPCC (2007) Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ and Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 976 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Jaffee S, Henson S (2004) Standards and agri-food exports from developing countries: Rebalancing the debate. Policy Research Working Paper 3348. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Mold A (2005) Non-tariff barriers. Their prevalence and relevance to African countries. Africa Trade Policy Centre, Work in progress No 25Google Scholar
  12. Robinson RA (1976) Plant pathosystems. Springer, Berlin, 184 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Secretariat to the Convention on Biological Diversity (2000a) Convention on biological diversity. Text and annexes. CBD Secretariat, Montreal, 34 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Secretariat to the Convention on Biological Diversity (2000b) Cartagena protocol on the biosafety to the convention on biological diversity. Text and annexes. CBD Secretariat, Montreal, 30 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Sutherst RW (2008) Climate change and vulnerability to introductions by plant and animal pests and diseases. In: FAO (ed) Climate-related transboundary pests and diseases. FAO, Rome, pp 8–21Google Scholar
  16. Tushemereirwe W, Kangire A, Ssekiwoko F, Offord LC, Crozier J, Boa E, Rutherford MA, Smith JJ (2004) First report of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum on banana in Uganda. Plant Pathology 53:802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Legg JP, Tresh JM (2000) Cassava Mosaic Virus disease in East Africa: a dynamic disease in a changing environment. Virus Research 71:135–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. UNCTAD (2007) Food safety and environmental requirements in export markets – Friend or foe for producers of fruit and vegetables in Asia. United Nations, New York and Geneva, 120 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Population Prospects, 2007: The 2006 Revision. Executive Summary. United Nations, New York, 19 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Van der Graaff NA (1999) The International Plant Protection Convention. In: Meester G, Woittiez D, De Zeeuw A (eds) Plants and politics. Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, pp 146–164Google Scholar
  21. Worldbank (2005) Food safety and agricultural health standards. Challenges and opportunities for developing country exports. Worldbank, Washington, DC, 142 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Worldbank (2007) World development report 2008. Agriculture for development. Worldbank, Washington, DC, 363 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. WTO (2007a) The results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, the legal texts. WTO, Geneva, 550 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. WTO (2007b) Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Private standards and the SPS agreement. G/SPS/GEN/746, 9 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. WTO (2008) Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Specific Trade concerns. G/SPS/GEN/200/Rev 8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RomeItaly
  2. 2.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations