X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Tribology Studies of Annealed Fullerene-like WS2 Nanoparticles
The temporal chemical changes occurring at the surface of fullerene-like (IF) nanoparticles of WS2 were investigated using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) and compared to those of bulk powder (2H) of the same material. It is possible to follow the long term (surface oxidation and carbonization) occurring at defects on the outermost surface (0001) layer of the fullerene-like nanoparticles. Similar but perhaps more distinctive changes are observed on the prismatic (hk0) surfaces of the 2H powder. Vacuum annealing is shown to remove most of these changes and bring the surface close to its stoichiometric composition. In accordance with previous measurements, further evidence is obtained for the existence of water molecules which are entrapped in the hollow core and interstitial defects of the fullerene-like nanoparticles during the synthesis. They are also shown to be removed by the vacuum annealing process. Chemically resolved electrical measurements (CREM) in the XPS show that the vacuum annealed IF samples become more intrinsic. Finally, tribological measurements show that the vacuum annealed IF samples perform better as an additive to oil than the non-annealed IF samples and the bulk (2H) platelets powder.
KeywordsIF-WS2 nanoparticles XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) tribology annealing
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