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Cell Theory and Experimental Physiology: New Ideas in a Changing Society

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The metamorphosis of Western Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries illustrates the profound relationships among technology, belief and the wider culture that are typical of human societies (Chapter 2). Between the publications of Lavoisier and Pasteur cited in Chapter 8, there was a massive cultural shift: a long, devastating pan-European war, the industrial revolution with its concomitant demographic, social and economic transformations, colonial expansion, new political movements, and so on. Not surprisingly, the style of thought associated with the Enlightenment and the rise of natural and experimental philosophy was challenged and altered. The character and concerns of science, including biology, changed accordingly.

Keywords

Industrial Revolution Experimental Physiology French Revolution External Reality Mechanistic Materialism 
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