Bacteriophytochromes Control Photosynthesis in Rhodopseudomonas palustris

  • Katie Evans
  • Toni Georgiou
  • Theresa Hillon
  • Anthony Fordham-Skelton
  • Miroslav Papiz
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 28)

Summary

The ability to endure and adapt to a broad array of environmental conditions is a feature of photosynthesizing organisms. This is particularly true of changing light conditions as acclimatization to light is of importance for energy utilization and for the prevention of radiation damage. The available light energy is influenced by several factors such as day/night cycles, shade, water depths, and competition from other photosynthesizing organisms. A more subtle effect is the availability of light in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum which can influence the chromophores chosen by the photosynthetic organism, and the ways in which these are organized within chromophore-protein complexes. Strategies are available for responding to the presence of solar energy and for optimizing photon capture. In most cases the strategies begin with the initiation of an altered pattern of gene expression arising from light sensing mechanisms that repress or activate the expression of genes required for photosynthesis. A further fine tuning of gene expression, to suit particular light conditions, can achieve additional improvements in efficient utilization of solar energy. This can be as simple as an increase in the quantity of pigmented complexes, in response to altered light intensity, or structural changes to photosynthetic complexes that ensure efficient adaptation to an altered distribution of photon energies. Phytochromes are an important class of macromolecules that sense fluctuating light intensity and spectral quality to alter gene expression. They have been shown to be of central importance in plant acclimatization and in recent years bacterial homologs have been found. A number of bacteriophytochromes have been discovered in the phototrophic non-sulfur purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) palustris that are involved in the control of photosynthesis and which provide insights into how this organism adapts to light in its environment.

Keywords

Chrome Cysteine Biodegradation Vinyl Macromolecule 

Abbreviations

Bph

bacteriophytochrome

BrbphP

Bradyrhizobium ORS278 bacteriophytochrome

BV

biliverdin IXα

CA

catalytic ATPase kinase domain

CBD

chromophore binding domain

Cph

cyanobacterial phytochrome

D.

Deinococcus

Dhp

dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer domain

FR

far-red

GAF

cGMP phosphodiesterases/adenylyl cyclases/bacterial transcription factor FhlA domain

LH

light-harvesting complex

LH2

light-harvesting complex 2

LH4

light-harvesting complex 4

Lx

lux, luminous flux on a surface area (lumen/m2)

PAS

period protein (PER)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein (ARNT)/ single-minded protein (SIM) domains

PCB

phycocyanobilin

Pfr

far-red absorbing phytochrome

PHY domain

phytochrome domain

Pr

red absorbing phytochrome

PYP

photoactive yellow protein

PΦB

phytochromobilin

R

red

RC-LH1

reaction center — LH 1 core complex

Rps.

Rhodopseudomonas

RR

response regulator

SAXS

small angle X-ray scattering

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katie Evans
    • 1
  • Toni Georgiou
    • 1
  • Theresa Hillon
    • 1
  • Anthony Fordham-Skelton
    • 1
  • Miroslav Papiz
    • 1
  1. 1.Daresbury LaboratoryScience and Technology Facilities CouncilWarringtonUK

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