Regulation of Gene Expression in Response to Oxygen Tension

  • Carl E. Bauer
  • Aaron Setterdahl
  • Jiang Wu
  • Brigitte R. Robinson
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 28)


Purple photosynthetic bacteria control numerous energy-generating and energy-utilizing processes in response to alterations in cellular redox, which is affected by environmental oxygen tension. The list of redox-regulated events includes synthesis of the pigmented and cytochrome components of the photosystem, enzymes for fixation of carbon and nitrogen, the synthesis of several terminal respiratory electron transport complexes, and synthesis of the energy-generating hydrogenase complex. Regulating synthesis of these components involves several well-characterized transcription factors including the sensor kinase RegB and its cognate response regulator RegA. Other redox-responding regulators include CrtJ and Fnr. Mechanisms of redox sensing by these transcription factors are discussed.


Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Rhodobacter Capsulatus Redox Control Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





base pair(s)




nuclear magnetic resonance










Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armstrong GA, Schmidt A, Sandmann G and Hearst JE (1990) Genetic and biochemical characterization of carotenoid biosynthesis mutants of Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Biol Chem 265: 8329–8338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauer CE, Young DA and Marrs BL (1988) Analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus puf operon: Location of the oxygen regulatedpromoterregion and the identification of an additional puf encoded gene. J Biol Chem 263: 4820–4827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauer CE, Elsen S and Bird TH (1999) Mechanisms for redox control of gene expression. Ann Rev Microbiol 53: 495–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauer E, Kaspar T, Fischer HM and Hennecke H (1998) Expression of the fixR-nifA operon in Bradyrhizobium japonicum depends on a new response regulator, RegR. J Bacteriol 180: 3853–3863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bird TH, Du S and Bauer CE (1999) Autophosphorylation, phosphotransfer, and DNA-binding properties of the RegB/RegA two-component regulatory system in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Biol Chem 274: 16343–16348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bollivar DW, Suzuki JY, Beatty JT, Dobrowlski JD and Bauer CE (1994) Directed mutational analysis of bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Mol Biol 237: 622–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolton JR (1978) Primary electron acceptor. In: Clayton RK and Sistrom WR (ed) The Photosynthetic Bacteria, pp 419–429. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowman WC, Du S, Bauer CE and Kranz RG (1999) In vitro activation and repression of photosynthesis gene transcription in Rhodobacter capsulatus. Mol Microbiol 33: 429–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bratsch S, Gomelsky M, Kuphal S and Klug G (2002) A single flavoprotein, AppA, integrates both redox and light signals in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mol Microbiol 45: 827–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Braatsch S, Bernstein JR, Lessner F, Morgan J, Liao JC, Harwood CS and Beatty JT (2006) Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 has two functional ppsR genes, each of which encodes a repressor of photosynthesis gene expression. Biochemistry 45: 14441–14451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braatsch S, Johnson JA, Noll K and Beatty JT (2007) The O2-responsive repressor PpsR2 but not PpsR1 transduces a light signal sensedby the BphP1 phytochrome in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009. FEMS Microbiol Lett 272: 60–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buggy J and Bauer CE (1995). Cloning and characterization of senC, a gene involved in both aerobic respiration and photosynthesis gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol 177, 6958–6965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen W, Jager A and Klug G (2000) Correction of the DNA sequence of the regB gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus with implications for the membrane topology of the sensor kinase RegB. J Bacteriol 182: 818–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cho SH, Youn SH, Lee SR, Yim HS and Kang SO (2004) Redox property and regulation of PpsR, a transcriptional repressor of photosystem gene expression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Microbio 150: 697–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen-Bazire G, Sistrom WR and Stanier RY (1957) Kinetic studies of pigment synthesis by nonsulfur purple bacteria. J Cellular Comp Physiol 49: 25–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Comolli JC and Donohue TJ (2002) Pseudomonas aeruginosa RoxR, are sponse regulator related to Rhodobacter sphaeroides PrrA, activates expression of the cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase Mol Micro 45: 755–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dong C, Elsen S, Swem LR and Bauer CE (2002) AerR, a second aerobic repressor of photosynthesis gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol 184: 2805–2814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Du S, Bird TH and Bauer CE (1998) DNA binding characteristics of RegA. A constitutively active anaerobic activator of photosynthesis gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Biol Chem 273: 18509–18513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Du S, Kouadio J-L K and Bauer CE (1999) Regulated expression of ahighly conserved regulatory gene cluster is necessary for controlling photosynthesis gene expression in response to anaerobiosis in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol 181: 4334–4341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Elsen S, Ponnampalam SN and Bauer CE (1998) CrtJ bound to distant binding sites interacts cooperatively to aerobically repress photopigment biosynthesis and light harvesting II gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Biol Chem 273: 30762–30769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Elsen S, Dischert W, Colbeau A and Bauer CE (2000) Expression of uptake hydrogenase and molybdenum nitrogenase in Rhodobacter capsulatus is coregulated by the RegB-RegA two-component regulatory system. J Bact 182: 2831–2837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elsen S, Swem LR, Swem DL and Bauer CE (2004) RegB/RegA, a highly conserved redox-responding global two-component regulatory system. Microbio Molec Biol Rev 68: 263–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elsen S, Jaubert M, Pignol D and Giraud F. (2005) PpsR: A multifaceted regulator of photosynthesis gene expression in purple bacteria. Mol Microbiol 57: 17–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Emmerich R, Panglungtshang K, Strehler P, Hennecke H and Fischer H-M (1999) Phosphorylation, dephosphorylation and DNA-binding of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum RegSR two-component regulatory proteins. Eur J Biochem 263: 455–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Emmerich R, Strehler P, Hennecke H and Fischer H-M (2000a) An imperfect inverted repeat is critical for DNA binding of the response regulator RegR of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Nuc Acids Res 28: 4166–4171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Emmerich R, Hennecke H and Fischer H-M (2000b) Evidence for a functional similarity between the two-component regulatory systems RegSR, ActSR and RegBA (PrrBA) in α-proteobacteria. Arch Microbiol 174: 307–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eraso JM and Kaplan S (1994) prrA, a putative response regulator involved in oxygen regulation of photosynthesis gene expression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J Bacteriol 176: 32–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Eraso JM and Kaplan S (1995) Oxygen-insensitive synthesis of the photosynthetic membranes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: A mutant histidine kinase. J Bacteriol 177: 2695–2706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Eraso JM and Kaplan S (2000) From redox flow to gene regulation: Role of the PrrC protein of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. Biochem 39: 2052–2062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Giraud E, Fardoux J, Fourrier N, Hannibal L, Genty B, Bouyer P, Dreyfus B and Verméglio A (2002) Bacteriophytochrome controls photosystem synthesis in anoxygenic bacteria. Nature 417: 202–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Giraud E, Zappa S, Jaubert M, Hannibal L, Fardoux J, Adriano JM, Bouyer P, Genty B, Pignol D and Verméglio A (2004) Bacteriophytochrome and regulation of the synthesis of the photosynthetic apparatus in Rhodopseudomonas palustris: Pitfalls of using laboratory strains. Photochem Photobiol Sci 3: 587–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gomelsky M and Kaplan S (1995a) Genetic evidence that PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 functions as a repressor of puc and bchF expression. J Bacteriol 177: 1634–1637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gomelsky M and Kaplan S (1995b). appA, a novel gene encoding a trans-acting factor involved in the regulation of photosynthesis gene expression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J Bacteriol 177: 4609–4618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gomelsky M and Klug G (2002) BLUF: A novel FAD-binding domain involved in sensory transduction in microorganisms. Trends Biochem. Sci. 27: 497–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gomelsky M, Horne IM, Lee HJ, Pemberton JM, McEwan AG, Kaplan S (2000) Domain structure, oligomeric state, and mutational analysis of PpsR, the Rhodobacter sphaeroides repressor of photosystem gene expression. J Bacteriol 182: 2253–2261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Han Y, Meyer MH, Keusgen M, Klug G (2007) A haem cofactor is required for redox and light signalling by the AppA protein of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mol Microbiol 64: 1090–1104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hemschemeier SK, Ebel U, Jager A, Balzer A, Kirndorfer M and Klug G (2000) In vivo and in vitro analysis of RegA response regulator mutants of Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Mol Microbiol Biotech 2: 291–300Google Scholar
  38. Inoue K, Mosley C, Kouadio J-L and Bauer C (1995) Isolation and in vitro phosphorylation of sensory transduction components controlling anaerobic induction of light harvesting and reaction center gene expression in R. capsulatus. Biochemistry 34: 391–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jaubert M, Zappa S, Fardoux J, Adriano J M, Hannibal L, Elsen S, Lavergne J, Verméglio A, Giraud E and Pignol D (2004) Light and redox control of photosynthesis gene expression in Bradyrhizobium: Dual roles of two PpsR. J Biol Chem 279: 44407–44416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones DF, Stenzel RA and Donohue TJ (2005) Mutational analysis of the C-terminal domain of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides response regulator PrrA. Microbiol 151: 4103–4110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Joshi HM and Tabita FR (1996) A global two component signal transduction system that integrates the control of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide assimilation, and nitrogen fixation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 14515–14520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaplan S, Eraso J and Roh JH (2005) Interacting regulatory networks in the facultative photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. Biochem Soc Trans 33: 51–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kim, SK, Mason, JT, Knaff, DB, Bauer, CE and Setterdahl, AT (2006) Redox properties of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides transcriptional regulatory proteins PpsR and AppA. Photosynth Res 89: 89–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kovacs AT, Rakhely G and Kovacs KL (2005) The PpsR regulator family. Res Microbiol 156: 619–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Laguri C, Phillips-Jones MK and Williamson MP (2003) Solution structure and DNA binding of the effector domain from the global regulator PrrA (RegA) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Insights into DNA binding specificity. Nucl Acids Res 31: 6778–6787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Laguri C, Stenzel RA, Donohue TJ, Phillips-Jones MK and Williamson MP (2006) Activation of the global gene regulator PrrA (RegA) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Biochem 45: 7872–7881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Laratta WP, Choi PS, Tosques IE and Shapleigh JP (2002) Involvement of the PrrB/PrrA two-component system in nitrite respiration in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1: Evidence for transcriptional regulation. J Bact 184: 3521–3529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Madigan MT (1995) The microbiology of nitrogen fixation by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, In: Blankenship RE, Madigan MT and Bauer CE (ed) Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria (Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, Vol 2), pp 915–928. Kluwer Academic Publishing, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  49. Madigan MT and Gest H (1979) Growth of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata chemoautotrophically in darkness with H2 as the energy source. J Bacteriol 137: 524–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Mao L, Mackenzie C, Roh JH, Eraso JM, Kaplan S and Resat H (2005) Combining microarray and genomic data to predict DNA binding motifs. Microbiology 151: 3197–3213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Masuda S and Bauer CE (2002) AppA is a blue light photoreceptor that antirepresses photosynthesis gene expression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Cell 110: 613–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Masuda S and Bauer CE (2005) The antirepressor AppA uses the novel flavin-binding BLUF domain as blue-light-absorbing photoreceptor to control photosystem synthesis. In: Briggs W and Spudich J (eds) Handbook of Photosensory Receptors, pp 433–446. Wiley-VCH publishing, WeinheimCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Masuda S, Matsumoto Y, Nagashima KVP, Shimada K, Inoue K, Bauer CE and Matsuura K (1999) Structural and functional analyses of photosynthetic regulatory genes regA and regB from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum, Roseobacter denitrificans, and Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol 181: 4205–4215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Masuda S, Dong C, Swem D, Setterdahl AT, Knaff DB and Bauer CE (2002) Repression of photosynthesis gene expression by formation of a disulfide bond in CrtJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 7078–7083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McCleary WR and Stocks JB (1994) Acetyl phosphate and the activation of two-component response regulators. J Biol Chem 269: 31567–31572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Moskvin OV, Gomelsky L and Gomelsky M (2005) Transcriptome analysis of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides PpsR regulon: PpsR as a master regulator of photosystem development J Bacteriol 187: 2148–2156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moskvin OV, Kaplan S, Gilles-Gonzalez MA and Gomelsky M (2007) Novel heme-based oxygen sensor with a revealing evolutionary history. J Biol Chem 282: 28740–28748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mosley CS, Suzuki JY and Bauer CE (1994) Identification and molecular genetic characterization of a sensor kinase responsible for coordinately regulating light harvesting and reaction center gene expression in response to anaerobiosis. J Bacteriol 176: 7566–7573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Mouncey N J and Kaplan S (1998) Oxygen regulation of the ccoN gene encoding a component of the cbb 3 oxidase in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1: Involvement of the FnrL protein. J Bacteriol 180: 2228–2231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Nowak E, Panjikar S, Konarev P, Svergun DI and Tucker PA (2006) The structural basis of signal transduction for the response regulator PrrA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem 281: 9659–9666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Gara JP and Kaplan S (1997) Evidence for the role of redox carriers in photosynthesis gene expression and carotenoid biosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. 2.4.1. J Bacteriol 179: 1951–1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Oh JI and Kaplan S (2000) Redox signaling: Globalization of gene expression EMBO J 19: 4237–4247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ouchane S and Kaplan S (1999) Topological analysis of the membrane-localized redox-responsive sensor kinase PrrB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. J Biol Chem 274: 17290–17296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ouchane S, Picaud M, Therizols P, Reiss-Husson F and Astier C (2007) Global Regulation of Photosynthesis and Respiration by FnrL: The first two targets in the tetrapyrrole pathway. J Biol Chem 282: 7690–7699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Parkinson JS and Kofoid EC (1992) Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Ann Rev Genet 26: 71–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Parson W (1978) Quinones as secondary electron acceptor, In: RK Clayton and Sistrom WR (ed) The Photosynthetic Bacteria, pp 455–469. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Penfold RJ and Pemberton JM (1994) Sequencing, chromosomal inactivation, and functional expression in Escherichia coli of ppsR, a gene which represses carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll synthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J Bacteriol 176: 2869–2876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Pfenning N (1978) General physiology and ecology of photosynthetic bacteria, In: RK Clayton and Sistrom WR (ed) The Photosynthetic Bacteria, pp 1–18. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Phillips-Jones MK and Hunter CN (1994) Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of RegA, a putative response regulator gene of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. FEMS Microbiol Lett 116: 269–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ponnampalam SN and Bauer CE (1997) DNA binding characteristics of CrtJ A redox-responding repressor of bacteriochlorophyll, carotenoid, and light harvesting-II gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Biol Chem 272: 18391–18396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ponnampalam SN, Buggy JJ, Bauer CE (1995) Characterization of an aerobic repressor that coordinately regulates bacteriochlorophyll, carotenoid, and light harvesting-II expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol 177: 2990–2997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ponnampalam SN, Elsen S and Bauer CE (1998) Aerobic repression of the Rhodobacter capsulatus bchC promoter involves cooperative interactions between CrtJ bound to neighboring palindromes. J Biol Chem 273: 30757–30761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Potter CA, Ward A, Laguri C, Williamson MP, Henderson PJ and Phillips-Jones MK (2002) Expression, purification and characterization of full-length histidine protein kinase RegB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J Mol Biol 320: 201–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Qian, Y and Tabita FR (1996) A global signal transduction system regulates aerobic and anaerobic CO2 fixation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J Bact 178: 12–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Roh JH and Kaplan S (2000) Genetic and phenotypic analyses of the rdx locus of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. J Bacteriol 182: 3475–3481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sganga MW and Bauer CE (1992) Regulatory factors controlling photosynthetic reaction center and light-harvesting gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. Cell 68: 945–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smart JL, Willett JW and Bauer CE (2004) Regulation of hem gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus by redox and photosystem regulators RegA, CrtJ, FnrL, and AerR. J Mol Biol 342: 1171–1186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Steunou AS, Astier C and Ouchane S (2004) Regulation of photosynthesis genes in Rubrivivax gelatinosus: Transcription factor PpsR is involved in both negative and positive control. J Bacteriol 186: 3133–3142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Swem DL and Bauer CE (2002) Coordination of ubiquinol oxidase and cytochrome cbb 3 oxidase expression by multiple regulators in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol 184: 2815–2820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Swem LR, Elsen S, Bird TH, Swem DL, Koch HG, Myllykallio H, Daldal F and Bauer CE (2001) The RegB/RegA two-component regulatory system controls synthesis of photosynthesis and respiratory electron transfer components in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Mol Biol 309: 121–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Swem LR, Kraft BJ, Swem DL, Setterdahl AT, Masuda S, Knaff DB, Zaleski JM and Bauer CE (2003) Signal transduction by the global regulator RegB is mediated by a redox-active cysteine. EMBO J 22: 4699–4708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Swem LR, Gong X, Yu CA and Bauer CE (2006) Identification of a ubiquinone-binding site that affects autophosphorylation of the sensor kinase RegB. J Biol Chem 281: 6768–6775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tabita FR (1995) The biochemistry and metabolic regulation of carbon metabolism and CO2 fixation in purple bacteria. In: Blankenship RE, Madigan MT and Bauer CE (ed) Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria (Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, Vol 2), pp 885–914. Kluwer Academic Publishing, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  84. Tiwari RP, Reeve WG, Dilworth MJ and Glenn AR (1996) Acid tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti strain WSM419 involves a two-component sensor-regulator system Microbiol 142: 1693–1704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vichivanives P, Bird TH, Bauer CE and Tabita FR (2000) Multiple regulators and their interactions in vivo and in vitro with the cbb regulons of Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Mol Biol 300: 1079–1099PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Willett J, Smart JL and Bauer CE (2007) RegA controls synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid photopigments in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol, In PressGoogle Scholar
  87. Zeilstra-Ryalls JH, Gabbert K, Mouncey NJ, Kaplan S and Kranz RG (1997) Analysis of the fnrL gene and its function in Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol 179: 7264–7273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Zeilstra-Ryalls JH and Kaplan S (1995) Aerobic and anaerobic regulation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1: The role of the fiirL gene. J Bacteriol 177: 6422–6431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Zeilstra-Ryalls JH and Kaplan S (1998) Role of the fnrL gene in photosystem gene expression and photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. J Bacteriol 180: 1496–1503PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl E. Bauer
    • 1
  • Aaron Setterdahl
    • 1
  • Jiang Wu
    • 1
  • Brigitte R. Robinson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations