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Inflammation and human cancer

  • S. P. Hussain
  • X. W. Wang
  • C. C. Harris
Conference paper
Part of the Falk Symposium book series (FASS, volume 160)

Abstract

Chronic inflammation and infection is frequently associated with increased cancer risk, although exceptions can be eited including rheumatoid arthritis and human papillomavirus infection (Table 1) 1. Infection with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) causes inflammation with the release of free radicals, chemokines and cytokines resulting in DNA damage, cell proliferation, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. The p53 pathway is a key responder to inflammatory stress 2. Free radicals, e.g. reactive nitrogen or oxygen species, can directly damage DNA and proteins and indirectly damage these macromolecules via lipid peroxidation (Figure 1). The p53 pathway responds to lower levels of DNA damage by cell cycle checkpoint arrest, facilitating DNA repair as an adapter in the formation of DNA repair protein complexes and transcriptional transactivation of DNA repair genes 3. By mediating cell death due to extensive DNA damage, p53 also contributes to these processes by switching from increased expression of anti- to pro-oxidant genes. p53 can both transcriptionally transrepress pro-oxidant/nitrosative genes, e.g. NOS2, and transactivate anti-oxidant genes expressing glutathione peroxidase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and Mn-superoxide dismutase, sestrins, and TIGAR (TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator) (Table 2). An animal model of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome has provided new insights into the protective anti-oxidative and nitrosative function of p53.

Keywords

Cell Cycle Checkpoint Increase Cancer Risk Mediate Cell Death Checkpoint Arrest Transcriptional Transactivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer and Falk Foundation e.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. P. Hussain
  • X. W. Wang
  • C. C. Harris
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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