EcoLocate: A Heterogeneous Wireless Network System for Wildlife Tracking

  • Andrew C. Markham
  • Andrew J. Wilkinson

Abstract

All research to date using wireless networks for wildlife tracking has concentrated on monitoring a single species, using large GPS enabled collars. These collars are too heavy to attach on smaller animals. Rather than omit small animals from the tracking spectrum, we show how a fusion of GPS tracking (where applicable) and an improved version of VHF tracking can result in a system which is able to track a wide range of animal species using the same underlying wireless network for information transfer. Tags are equipped with radio transceivers, which are used to both transmit and receive beacons. Received beacons are used to construct radio proximity maps which characterize co-location of various animals at different points in time. Furthermore, as the locations of some nodes are known, coarse estimates of animal locations can be determined, especially around focal points such as waterholes. We present the components of our system and discuss our prototype implementation.

Keywords

Wildlife tracking GPS VHF Wireless Network beacon proximity detection 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    P. Juang, H. Oki, Y. Wang, M. Martonosi, L. Peh and D. Rubenstein, ”Energy-Efficient Computing for Wildlife Tracking: Design Tradeoffs and Early Experiences with ZebraNet”, ASPLOS X, San Jose, CA, USA, 2002Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    P. Zhang, C. M. Sadler, S. A. Lyon and M. Martonosi, “Hardware Design Experiences in ZebraNet”, SenSys, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 2004Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    W. Cochran, “Wildlife Telemetry”, In S. D. Schemnitz (Ed.), Wildlife management techniques manual, 1980Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    R. E. Kenward, A Manual for Wildlife Radio Tagging, Academic Press, 2001Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Kaplan (Ed.), Understanding GPS: Principles and Applications, Artech House, 1996Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    G. Spong, M. Johansson and M. Björklund, “High genetic variation in leopards indicates large and long-term stable effective population size”, Molecular Ecology, vol. 9, no. 11, 2000 pp. 1773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    A. C. Markham and A. J. Wilkinson, “The Adaptive Social Hierarchy - A Self Organizing Network Based on Naturally Occurring Structures”, In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Biologically Inspired Networks and Computation (BIONETICS), Cavelese, Italy, 2006Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Microchip Technology, http:/ / www.microchip.com Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Nordic Semiconductor, http:/ / www.nordicsemi.com Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    u-blox, http:/ / www.u-blox.com Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Sanyo battery specifications, http:/ / us.sanyo.com/ batteries Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    A. C. Markham and A. J. Wilkinson, “A biomimetic ranking system for mobile energy constrained wireless networks”, In Proceedings of the Tenth Southern African Telecommunications, Networks and Applications Conference (SATNAC), Sugar Beach Resort, Mauritius, 2007Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    T. Small, Z. J. Haas, A. Purgue and K. Fristrup “The Shared Wireless Infostation Model: A New Ad Hoc Networking Paradigm (or Where There is a Whale, There is a Way)”, Fourth ACM International Symposium on Mobile AdHoc Networking &Computing, 2003Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    P. Sikka, P. Corke, P. Valencia, C. Crossman, D. Swain and G. Bishop-Hurley, “Wireless adhoc sensor and actuator networks on the farm”, In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, April 2006Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    T. Wark, P. Corke, P. Sikka, L. Klingbeil, Y. Guo, C. Crossman, P. Valencia, D. Swain and G. Bishop-Hurley, “Transforming Agriculture through Pervasive Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 50-57, Apr-Jun, 2007Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    M. Radenkovic and B. Wietrzyk, ”Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks for Very Large Scale Cattle Monitoring”, In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop Applications and Services in Wireless Networks (ASWN 06), 2006, pp. 47- 58Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    J.H. Huang, S. Amjad and S. Mishra, “CenWits: a sensor-based loosely coupled search and rescue system using witnesses”, In Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems (SenSys ’ 05), San Diego, California, USA, 2005Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    S. Prange, T. Jordan, C. Hunter and S D Gehrt, “New Radiocollars for the Detection of Proximity among Individuals”, Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 5, Dec 2006, pp. 1333Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew C. Markham
    • 1
  • Andrew J. Wilkinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations