Advertisement

Soil Erosion and Food Security

  • Humberto Blanco-Canqui
  • Rattan Lal

Abstract

Soil is the basis for crop production because about 99% of food is produced from the soil (Pimentel, 2000). Thus, food security depends directly on soil productivity. Accelerated soil erosion is among principal causes of the decrease in soil productivity and increase in risks of global food insecurity (Fig. 19.1). The magnitude of erosional impacts on ecosystem productivity and food security is, however, complex, variable, and soil specific. Crop production in regions with highly mechanized agriculture and large-scale farms coupled with the use of improved crop varieties, fertilizers, irrigation practices, and other advanced technological inputs has progressively increased since the 1960’s, thereby masking the potential threat of erosion on food security. The increase in food production under intensive farming practices, however, must not be generalized across all ecoregions because it has not occurred in all regions, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (FAO, 2006).

Keywords

Soil Organic Matter Food Security Crop Yield Soil Erosion Soil Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bakker MM, Govers G, Rounsevell MDA (2004) The crop productivity-erosion relationship: an analysis based on experimental work. Catena 57:55–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cotching WE, Hawkins K, Sparrow LA et al. (2002) Crop yields and soil properties on eroded slopes of red ferrosols in north-west Tasmania. Aust J Soil Res 40:625–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. den Biggelaar C, Lal R, Wiebe K et al. (2001) Soil erosion impacts on crop yields in North America. Adv Agron 72:1–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. den Biggelaar C, Lal R, Wiebe K et al. (2004) The global impact of soil erosion on productivity. Adv Agron 81:1–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. FAO. 2006. 40 countries face food shortages worldwide. http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2006/1000416/index.html. Cited 1 Dec 2007
  6. Fahnestock P, Lal R, Hall GF (1995) Land use and erosional effects on two Ohio alfisols .2. Crop yields. J Sust Agric 7:85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Flörchinger FA, Leihner DE, Steinmuller N et al. (2000) Effects of artificial topsoil removal on sorghum, peanut, and cassava yield. J Soil Water Conserv 55:334–339Google Scholar
  8. Jenny H (1980) The Soil Resource: Origin and Behavior Ecological Studies vol. 37, Springer- Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Lal R (2007) Anthropogenic influences on world soils and implications to global food security. Adv Agron 93:69–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lal R, Ahmadi M, Bajracharya RM (2000) Erosional impacts on soil properties and corn yield on Alfisols in central Ohio. Land Degrad Develop 11:575–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Larney FJ, Olson BM, Janzen HH et al. (2000) Early impact of topsoil removal and soil amendments on crop productivity. Agron J 92:948–956Google Scholar
  12. Liu JG, Williams JR, Zehnder AJB et al. (2007) GEPIC – modelling wheat yield and crop water productivity with high resolution on a global scale. Agric Syst 94:478–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lobo D, Lozano Z, Delgado F (2005) Water erosion risk assessment and impact on productivity of a Venezuelan soil. Catena 64:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Massee TW (1990) Simulated erosion and fertilizer effects on winter-wheat cropping intermountain dryland area. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:1720–1725Google Scholar
  15. Mulengera MK, Payton RW(1999) Modification of the productivity index model. Soil Tillage Res 52:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Neill, LL (1979) An evaluation of soil production based on root growth and water depletion. M.S. thesis, Univ. of Missouri, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  17. Olson KR, Lal R, Norton LD (1994) Evaluation of methods to study soil erosion-productivity relationships. J Soil Water Conserv 49:586–590Google Scholar
  18. Oyedele DJ, Aina PO (2006) Response of soil properties and maize yield to simulated erosion by artificial topsoil removal. Plant Soil 284:375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pierce FJ, Larson WE, Dowdy RH et al. (1983) Productivity of soils: Assessing long-term changes due to erosion. J Soil Water Conserv 38:39–44Google Scholar
  20. Pimentel D (2000) Soil erosion and the threat to food security and the environment. Ecosyst Health 6:221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Priya S, Shibasaki R (2001) National spatial crop yield. Simulation using GIS-based crop production model. Ecol Modelling 135:113–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Radcliffe DE, West LT, Ware GO et al. (1990) Infiltration in adjacent Cecil and Pacolet soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:1739–1743Google Scholar
  23. Salako FK, Dada PO, Adejuyigbe CO et al. (2007) Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence. Soil Tillage Res 94:21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stocking MA (2003) Tropical soils and food security: the next 50 years. Sci 302:1356–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stöckle, C.O., and R. Nelson (2007) Cropping systems simulation model user’s manual. http://www.sipeaa.it/tools/CropSyst/CropSyst_manual.pdf. Cited 1 Dec 2007
  26. Tan G, Shibasaki R (2003) Global estimation of crop productivity and the impacts of global warming by GIS and EPIC integration. Ecol Modeling 168:357–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Todorovic P, Gani J (1987) Modelling the effect of erosion on crop production. J Appl Probab 24:787–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Williams JR, Jones CA, Dyke PT (1984) A modeling approach to determining the relationship between erosion and soil productivity. Trans ASAE 27:129–144Google Scholar
  29. Yang J, Hammer RD, Thompson AL et al. (2003) Predicting soybean yield in a dry and wet year using a soil productivity index. Plant Soil 250:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Humberto Blanco-Canqui
    • 1
  • Rattan Lal
    • 1
  1. 1.Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations