Expectations in the Wall Region of a Large-Eddy Simulation
The expectations fall into two categories. The first relates to the method and how general it should be, how applicable to unstructured grids in complex three-dimensional geometries and very high Reynolds numbers, even if the exercise uses a structured grid in a two-dimensional flow at moderate Reynolds number. The view-point is that there should be a known path from the research activity to the creation of a machine or the prediction of weather. If not, the gap in this path takes on a high priority and the work is labeled as preliminary. An example of such a litmus test is whether the grid design requires knowledge of the direction of the skin friction. The second category relates to the fidelity of the description of the turbulence which can be assembled. As an example, the shear stress in a wall-bounded LES is calculated quite well as the sum of a viscous stress, a “modeled” Reynolds stress, and a “resolved” Reynolds stress. However, the same has not been achieved for the other Reynolds stresses, unless the grid is such that Quasi-Direct Numerical Simulation is taking place. Higher-order quantities are even more troublesome. We also discuss a remedy to Log-Layer Mismatch called “Energized Wall-Modeled LES” which is most simple, cost-free, and compatible with grids that are useable in practice. The added term provides visible extra activity, and improves all the Reynolds stresses in addition to the mean velocity.
KeywordsQuality Reliability Versatility Applicability Large-eddy simulation
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