Bioidentification of Xenobiotics as a Basis of Water Management
We have been developing non-traditional methods of the identification of pollutants, using various hydrobionts as biological objects and the study of the mechanism of toxic action of xenobiotics. The experiments were carried out with using of Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna is a Crustacean in the order of Cladocera. This aquatic animal extensively used as a test organism in aquatic toxicology due to their small size, short life cycle and amenability to lab culture. Daphnia magna is the most sensitive test-object in relation of different pollutants among all known biological objects including experimental animals. Experiments were performed with a 2-days old culture of Daphnia magna. The toxicity of xenobiotics was determined by the value of LC50, a concentration of the compounds causing death to 50% of hydrobionts during incubation with toxicants for 24 hours. In the first stage of the work, toxicity of organophosphates (Dipterex, DFP, DDVP, Paraoxon, Malathion, Malaoxon), carbamates (Aminostigmine, Physostigmine, Sevine), heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cu, Co, Cd, Cr, As, Al), organochlorines (Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Aroclor, DDT, Lindane, PCBs etc.) and pyrethroids (Cypermethrin, Fenvalerate, Deltamethrin, Permethrin, Allethrin, Resmethrin, Phenothrin, Kadethrin, Cyphenothrin) was determined. The effects of a number of antagonists on the toxicity of xenobiotics were studied. At the first time we discovered that in experiments to Daphnia magna some muscarinic cholinoreceptor blockers (atropine, glipine, pediphen etc.) reduced the toxic effect of organophosphates and carbamates. In the case of heavy metals the chelating agents (EDTA, Dithioethylcarbamate, Unithiolum, Sodium thiosulphuricum, L-Aspartic acid) were effective, for certain organochlorine poisonings – anticonvulsive drugs (diazepam, phenobarbital). In the case of pyrethroid’s poisonings the antagonist of glutamate receptor (ketamine), DOPA receptors (haloperidole) and blocker of calcium channel (nimodipine) reduced the toxicity of xenobiotics. As far as these antidotes have a specific treatment action only against definite classes of pollutants, we have elaborated the sensitive express-methods of bioidentification of pollutants.
KeywordsBioidentification xenobiotics Daphnia magna water management
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