Challenges to Crop Biosecurity

  • James Peter Stack
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)

Plant systems are the foundation of food production systems and consequently, among the most important components of a sustainable society. There are many threats to plant systems that put sustainability at risk. Many challenges exist to achieving plant biosecurity at the local, regional, and global scales. Challenges to plant biosecurity include population growth, globalization, climate change, bioterrorism and biocrime, and changing agribusiness infrastructure. Additional challenges include the need for communications networks to enable collaborative diagnostics, the development of national and international technology strategies to promote the rapid global deployment of appropriate diagnostic technologies and standardized protocols, and the need for education programs regarding the importance of plant biosecurity to sustainability. It is important for each nation to develop a plant biosecurity infrastructure that ensures a safe and constant supply of food, feed, and fiber. It is equally important to develop an international framework for cooperation that maintains plant biosecurity without compromising trade.

Keywords

Agroterrorism biocrime plant biosecurity crop biosecurity communications networks 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson PK, Cunningham AA, Patel NG, Morales FJ, Epstein PR, Daszak P. (2004) Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. Ecol. Evol. 19: 535–44 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brasier, CM. (2001) Rapid evolution of introduced plant pathogens via interspecific hybridization. BioScience 51: 123–133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brasier CM, Cooke DEL, Duncan JM. (1999) Origin of a new Phytophthora pathogen through interspecific hybridization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 5878–5883 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Burdon JJ, Thrall PH, Ericson L. (2006) The current and future dynamics of disease in plant communities. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44: 19–39 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Campbell FT. (2004) Political and economic barriers to scientifically based decisions. In: Biological Pollution, An emerging global menace. APS Press, St. Paul (MN) Casagrande R. (2000) Biological terrorism targeted at agriculture: The threat to U.S. national security. The Nonproliferation Rev./FallWinter: pp. 92–105. http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/npr/vol07/73/73casa.pdf. Accessed 15 November 2007
  6. Coakley SM, Scherm H, Chakraborty S. (1999) Climate change and plant disease management. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 37: 399–426 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Diamond J. (2005) Collapse: How societies choose to succeed or fail. Viking Penguin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Fletcher J, Stack JP. (2007) Agricultural biosecurity: threats and impacts for plant pathogens. pp. 86–94. In: Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global infectious disease surveillance and detection: Assessing the challenges – finding the solutions. Workshop summary. Washington, D.C: The National Academies PressGoogle Scholar
  9. Fletcher J, Bender CL, Cobb WT, Gold SE, Ishimaru CE, Luster DG, Melcher UK, Murch RL, Scherm H, Seem RC, Sherwood JL, Sobral B, Tolin SA. (2006) Plant pathogen forensics: Capabilities, needs and recommendations. Microbiol. Molec. Biol. Rev. 70: 450–471 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garrett KA, Dendy SP, Frank EE, Rouse MN, Travers SE. (2006) Climate change effects on plant disease: Genomes to ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44: 489–509 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kadlec, Lt. Col. R. P. (1998) Biological Weapons for Waging Economic Warfare. Chapter 10 in: Schneider BR and Grinter LE (eds.) Battlefield of the Future, 21st Century Warfare Issues. Air University Press: http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronic les/battle/chp10. html
  12. Madden L, Wheelis M. (2003) The threat of plant pathogens as weapons against U.S. crops. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 41: 155–176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Myerson LA, Reaser JK. (2002) Biosecurity: Moving toward a comprehensive approach. BioScience 52: 593–600 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nutter FW Jr, Madden LV. (2002) Plant diseases as a possible consequence of biological attack, pp. 793–818 In: Bronze MS and Greenfield RA (eds.), Biodefense: Principles and Pathogens, Horizon Bioscience, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  15. PriceSmith AT. (2002) The health of nations. Pages 139. MIT Press. CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  16. Schaad NW, Shaw JJ, Vidaver A, Leach J, Erlick BJ. (1999) Crop Biosecurity. APSnet Feature, September–October 1999. Online publication. http://apsnet.org/online/feature/BioSecurity/ Accessed 16 November 2007
  17. Stack JP, Fletcher J. (2007) Plant Biosecurity Infrastructure for Disease Surveillance and Diagnostics. pp. 95–106. In: Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global infectious disease surveillance and detection: Assessing the challenges – finding the solutions. Workshop summary. Washington, D.C: The National Academies PressGoogle Scholar
  18. Stack J, Cardwell K, Hammerschmidt R, Byrne J, Loria R, Snover-Clift K, Baldwin W, Wisler G, Beck H, Bostock R, Thomas C, Luke E. (2006) The National Plant Diagnostic Network. Plant Dis. 90: 128–136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Strange RN, Scott PR. (2005) Plant disease: A threat to global food security. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 43: 83–116 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Westbrooks RG, White P. (2004) An ecological explosion in slow motion. In: Biological Pollution, An emerging global menace. APS Press, St. Paul (MN)Google Scholar
  21. Wheelis M, Casagrande R, Madden LV. (2002) Biological attack on agriculture: Lowtech, high impact bioterrorism. Bioscience 52: 569–576 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Whitby SM. (2001) The potential use of plant pathogens against crops. Microbes Infect. 3: 73–80 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Peter Stack
    • 1
  1. 1.Biosecurity Research InstituteKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA

Personalised recommendations