Student Engagement in Learning
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The concept of “student engagement” requires elucidation. In our view, engagement is one of the critical goals of education, and a criterion for evaluating its effectiveness. Research on the subject has defined engagement in three ways: “Behavioral engagement draws on the idea of participation; it includes involvement in academic and on-task behavior… emotional engagement is related to… student attitudes and student interest and values… cognitive engagement is related to… motivational goals and self-regulated learning.” Engagement in the context of students’ learning in school is thereby conceived as the interaction or fusion of behavior, emotion, and cognition in the process of learning (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). Engagement is thus a much broader concept than “motivation to learn” although the two overlap to some degree. Engagement also overlaps with student interest, attachment to the school, achievement motivation, self-regulated learning, commitment to learning, and/or the investment of energy in learning in general, and other related terms. Engagement encompasses all of these ideas, so that it is a broad, multidimensional concept. It is appropriate that a concept with such complexity serve as a goal of schools’ educative efforts and of students’ educational experience.
KeywordsStudent Engagement Achievement Motivation Student Interest Cognitive Engagement Emotional Engagement
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