Distance Measurements in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers by Pulsed EPR

  • Andrei V. Astashkin
  • Asako Kawamori
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 26)

The last decade has seen an enormous increase in interest to structural studies in biological systems using pulsed EPR techniques, in particular, to the distance measurements between pairs of paramagnetic centers using pulsed ELDOR and a whole arsenal of other techniques. Most notable applications are to the distance measurements between spin labels in double-labeled proteins and between electron transfer intermediates in photosynthetic reaction centers. In this chapter we will describe the theoretical and practical aspects of pulsed ELDOR and a related technique, 2+1, and demonstrate their application to measurements of distances between electron transfer cofactors in plant Photosystem II (PS II) and other photosynthetic reaction centers (RC). Since much of the distance information in photosynthetic RCs was obtained by pulsed ELDOR and 2+1, these are the main techniques we discuss. However, the results obtained by other pulsed EPR methods, the selective hole burning and out-of-phase electron-spin echo envelope modulation, will also be mentioned.

Keywords

Chlorophyll Tyrosine Immobilization Proline Oligomerization 

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrei V. Astashkin
    • 1
  • Asako Kawamori
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.School of Science and TechnologyKwansei Gakuin UniversityJapan

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