Advertisement

Molecular Biology of Biocontrol Activity Against Crop Diseases

  • P. Narayanasamy

Abstract

As an ecofriendly strategy of crop disease management, use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) for protecting crops against diseases has attracted the attention of researchers, industries and consumers of agricultural and horticultural produce. Although several microbes have been shown to have the potential for use as BCAs, the satisfactory performance under field conditions has been proved only for a few of them. Molecular techniques have been applied to establish the identity and genetic diversity of microorganisms with potential biocontrol activity and to gather information on the genes required for and molecular determinants of the biocontrol activity of different BCAs. The studies on the molecular bases of the three-way interaction among the plant, BCA and pathogen have opened up the possibility of having a better understanding of how the BCAs search for the pathogen, talk to the host plant and survive in the environment. Use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) is considered as a desirable crop disease management strategy alternative to chemical application due to ill effects of chemicals to the environment, consumers of agricultural produce and non-target organisms. Molecular techniques have accelerated the pace of research endeavors to gather information on various aspects of BCAs and their interaction with pathogens and plants. The BCAs can interact with the microbial pathogens by producing different toxic metabolites such as enzymes and antimicrobial compounds. They also have the ability to indirectly interact with pathogens by inducing resistance in plants to diseases caused by them. The foremost step in the study of molecular biology of the BCAs is establishing the identity of the BCAs with certainty at genus, species, subspecies or strain level. This will be essential for the reproducibility and credibility of the tests performed at various centers and for patenting and development of BCA-based products for large scale application.

Keywords

Biocontrol Agent Botrytis Cinerea Trichoderma Harzianum Induce Systemic Resistance Biocontrol Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. Abbas A, Morrissey JP, Carnicero-Marquez P, Sheehan MM, Delany IR, O’Gara F (2002) Characterization of interactions between the transcriptional repressor Phlf and its binding site at the phlA promoter in Pseudomonas fluorescens F113. J Bacteriol 184:3008–3016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson LM, Stockwell VO, Loper JE (2004) An extracellular protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens inactivates antibiotics of Pantoea agglomerans. Phytopathology 94:1228–1234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Avis TJ, Caron SJ, Boekhout T, Hamelin RC, Bélanger RR (2001) Molecular and physiological analyses of the powdery mildew antagonist Pseudomyza flocculosa and related fungi. Phytopathology 91:249–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bae YS, Knudsen GR (2000) Cotransformation of Trichoderma harzianum with beta-glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein genes provides a useful tool for monitoring fungal growth and activity in natural soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:810–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagnasco P, de la Fuente L, Gualtieri G, Noya F, Arias A (1998) Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. as biocontrol agents against forage legume root pathogenic fungi. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1317–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bangera MG, Thomashow LS (1999) Identification and characterization of gene cluster for synthesis of the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol from Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87. J Bacteriol 181:3155–3163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker JO, Schwinn FJ (1993) Control of soilborne pathogens with living bacteria and fungi: status and outlook. Pesticide Sci 37:355–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bélanger RR, Dufour N, Caron J, Benhamou N (1995) Chronological events associated with the antagonistic properties of Trichoderma harzianum against Botrytis cinerea: indirect evidence for sequential role of antibiosis and parasitism. Biocont Sci Technol 5:41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett JE (1990) Sporothrix schenckii. In: Mandell GL, Douglas J Jr, Bennett JE (eds) Principles and practice of infectious diseases, Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp1972–1975.Google Scholar
  10. Bergsma-Vlami M, Prins ME, Staats M, Raaijmakers JM (2005) Assessment of genotypic diversity of antibiotic-producing Pseudomonas species in the rhizosphere by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:993–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertagnolli BL, Daly S, Sinclair JB (1998) Antimycotic compounds from plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and its antagonist Trichoderma harzianum. J Phytopathol 146:131–135Google Scholar
  12. Bulat SA, Lübeck M, Mironenko N, Jensen DF, Lübeck PS (1998) UP-PCR analysis and ITS-1 ribotyping of strains of Trichoderma and Gliocladium. Mycol Res 102:933–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boekhout T (1995) Pseudomyza bandoni emend Baekhout a genus of yeast-like anamorphs of Ustilaginales. J Gen Appl Microbiol 41:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brunner K, Zeilinger S, Ciliento R, Woo SL, Lorito M, Kubicek CP, Mach RL (2005) Improvement of the fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride to enhance both antagonism and induction of plant systemic disease resistance. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:3959–3965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carsolio C, Benhamou N, Haran S, Cortes C, Gutierrez A, Chet I, Herrera-Estrella A (1999) Role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene ech42 in mycoparasitism. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:929–935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chet I, Inbar J (1994) Biological control of fungal pathogens. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 48:37–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. dal Soglio EK, Bertagnolli BL, Sinclair JB, Yu GY, Eastburn DM (1998) Production of chitinolytic enzymes and endoglucanase in the soybean rhizosphere in the presence of Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizoctonia solani. Biol Control 12:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De la Cruz J, Hidalgo-Gallego A, Lora JM, Benítz Y, Pintor-Toro JA, Llobell A (1992) Isolation and characterization of three chitinases from Trichoderma harzianum. Eur J Biochem 206:859–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De La Fuente L, Thomashow L, Weller D, Bajsa N, Quagliotto L, Charnin L, Arias A (2004) Pseudomonas fluorescens UP61 isolated from birdsfoot trefoil rhizosphere produces multiple antibiotics and exerts a broad spectrum of biocontrol activity. Eur J Plant Pathol 110:671–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Delany I, Sheehan MM, Fenton A, Bardin S, Aarons S, O’Gara F (2000) Regulation of production of the antifungal metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol in Pseudomonas fluorescens F113: genetic analysis of phlF as a transcriptional repressor. Microbiology 146:537–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Friel D, Pessoa NMG, Vandenbol M, Jijakli MH (2007) Separate and combined disruptions of two exo-β-1,3-glucanase genes decrease the efficiency of Pichia anomala (strain K) biocontrol against Botrytis cinerea on apple. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:371–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gallo A, Mulé G, Favilla M, Altomare C (2004) Isolation and characterization of a trichodiene synthase homologous gene in Trichoderma harzianum. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 65:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. García I, Lora JM, De la Cruz J, Benítez T, Llobel A, Pintor-Toro JA (1994) Cloning and characterization of a chitinase (CHIT42) cDNA from the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Curr Genet 27:83–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grevesse C, Jijakli MH, Duterme O, Colinet D, Lepoivre P (1998a) Preliminary study of exo-β-1,3-glucanase encoding genes in relation to the protective activity of Pichia anomala (strain K) against Botrytis cinerea in postharvest apples. Bull OILB/SROP 21:81–89Google Scholar
  25. Grevesse C, Jijakli MH, Lepoivre P (1998b) Study of exo-β-1,3-glucanase activity production by the yeast Pichia anomala in relation to its antagonistic properties against Botrytis cinerea. Meded Facult Landbou Univ Gent 63:1685–1692Google Scholar
  26. Grevesse C, Lepoivre P, Jijakli MH (2003) Characterization of the exo-glucanase PaExG2 and study of its role in the biocontrol activity of Pichia anomala strain K. Phytopathology 93:1145–1152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Grinyer J, Hunt S, Mckay M, Herbert BR, Nevalainen H (2005) Proteomic response of the biological control fungus Trichoderma atroviridae to growth on the cell walls of Rhizoctonia solani. Curr Genet 47:381–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grondona I, Hermosa R, Tejada M, Gomis MD, Mateos PF, Bridge PD, Monte E, Garcia-Acha I (1997) Physiological and biochemical characterization of Trichoderma harzianum, a biological control agent against soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3189–3198Google Scholar
  29. Haas D, Keel C (2003) Regulation of antibiotic production in root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. and relevance for biological control of plant disease. Annu Rev Phytopathol 41:117–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haas D, Blumer C, Keel C (2000) Biocontrol ability of fluorescent pseudomonas genetically dissected: importance of positive feedback regulation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 11:209–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hanson LE, Howell CR (2004) Elicitors of plant defense responses from biocontrol strains of Trichoderma virens. Phytopathology 94:171–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Howell CR, Hanson LE, Stipanovic RD, Puckhaber LS (2000) Induction of terpenoid synthesis in cotton roots and control of Rhizoctonia solani by seed treatment with Trichoderma virens. Phytopathology 90:248–252CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Jijakli MH, Lepoivre P (1998) Characterization of an exo-β-1,3-glucanase produced by Pichia anomala strain K, antagonist of Botrytis cinerea on apples. Phytopathology 88:335–343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Jijakli MH, Lapoivre P, Tossut P, Thonard P (1993) Biological control of Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium spp. on postharvest apples by two antagonistic yeast. Meded Facult Landbou Univ Gent 58:1349–1358Google Scholar
  35. Joshi R, McSpadden Gardener BB (2006) Identification and characterization of novel genetic markers associated with biological control activities in Bacillus subtilis. Phytopathology 96:145–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kim DS, Cook RJ, Weller DM (1997) Bacillus sp. L324-92 for biological control of three root diseases of wheat grown with reduced tillage. Phytopathology 87:551–558CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim KK, Fravel DR, Papavizas GC (1993) Glucose oxidase as the antifungal principle of talaron from Talaromyces flavus. Canad J Microbiol 36:760–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kiss L (1997) Genetic diversity in Ampelomyces isolates, hyperparsites of powdery mildew fungi, inferred from RFLP analysis of the rDNA ITS region. Mycol Res 101:1073–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kiss L, Nakasone KK (1998) Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences do not support the species status of Ampelomyces quisqualis a hyperparasite of powdery mildew fungi. Curr Genet 33:362–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kloepper JW, Leong J, Teintze M, Schroth MN (1980) Enhanced plant growth by siderophores produced by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Nature 286:885--886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kloepper JW, Ryu CM, Zhang S (2004) Induced systemic resistance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology 94:1259–1266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Koumoutsi A, Chen XH, Henne A, Liesegang H, Hitzeroth G, Franke P, Vater J, Borris R (2004) Structural and functional characterization of gene clusters directing nonribosomal synthesis of bioactive cylclic lipopeptides in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42. J Bacteriol 186:1084–1096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Limón MC, Cahcón MR, Mejías R, Delgado-Jarana J, Rincón AM, Cadón AC, Benitz T (2004) Increased antifungal and chitinase-specific activities of Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 by addition of a cellulose binding domain. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:675–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lu Z, Tombolini R, Woo S, Zeilinger S, Lorito M, Jansson JK (2004) In vivo study of Trichoderma-pathogen-plant interactions, using constitutive and inducible green fluorescent protein reporter systems. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:3073–3081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lübeck M, Alekhina IA, Stephen Lübeck P, Jensen FD, vBulat SA (1999) Delineation of Trichoderma harzianum into two different genotypic groups by a highly robust fingerprinting method UP-PCR product cross-hybridization. Mycol Res 103:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mach RL, Peterbauer CK, Payer K, Jaksits S, Woo SL, Zeilinger S, Kullnig CM, Lorito M, Kubicek CP (1999) Expression of two major chitinase genes of Trichoderma atroviride (T. harzianum P1) is triggered by different regulatory signals. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:2145–2151Google Scholar
  47. Markovic O, Markovic N (1998) Cell cross-contamination in cell cultures: the silent and neglected danger. In vitro Cell Dev Biol 34:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Massart S, Jijakli MH (2006) Identification of differentially expressed genes by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism in the biocontrol agent Pichia anomala (strain Kh5). Phytopathology 96:80–86CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Massart S, De Clercq D, Salmon M, Dickburt C, Jijakli MH (2005) Development of real-time PCR using Minor Groove Binding probe to monitor the biological control agent Candida oleophila (strain O). J Microbiol Meth 60:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maurhofer M, Bachler M, Notz R, Martinez V, Keel C (2004) Cross-talk between 2,4-diacetylphlorglucinol-producing biocontrol pseudomonads on wheat roots. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:1990–1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Maurhofer M, Reimmann C, Schmidli-Scherer P, Heeb S, Haas D, Défago G (1998) Salicylic acid biosynthetic genes expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P3, improve the induction of systemic resistance in tobacco against Tobacco necrosis virus. Phytopathology 88:678–684CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Mavrodi DV, Mavrodi OV, McSpadden Gardener BB, Landa BB, Weller DM, Thomashow LS (2002) Identification of differences in genome content among phlD-positive Pseudomonas fluorescens strains by using PCR-based subtractive hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:5170–5176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mavrodi OV, Mavrodi DV, Park AA, Weller DM, Thomashow LS (2006a) The role of dsbA in colonization of the wheat rhizosphere by Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r 1-96. Microbiology 152:863–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mavrodi OV, Mavrodi DV, Weller DM, Thomashow LS (2006b) Role of ptsP, orfT and sss recombinase genes in root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r 1-96. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:7111–7122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McSpadden Gardener BB (2004) Ecology of Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. agricultural systems. Phytopathology 94:1252–1258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Notz R, Maurhofer M, Schnider-Keel U, Duffy B, Haas D, Déago G (2001) Biotic factors affecting expression of the 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthesis gene phlA in Pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol strain CHA0 in the rhizosphere. Phytopathology 91:873–881CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ospina-Giraldo MD, Royse DJ, Chen X, Romaine CP (1999) Molecular phylogenetic analyses of biological control strains of Trichoderma harzianum and other biotypes of Trichoderma spp. associated with mushroom green mold. Phytopathology 89:308–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Parret AHA, Schoofs G, Proost P, De Mot R (2003) A plant lectin-like bacteriocin from a rhizosphere-colonizing Pseudomonas.J Bacteriol 185:897–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Parret AHA, Temmerman K, De Mot R (2005) Novel lectin-like bacteriocins of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5197–5207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Postma J, Geraats BPJ, Pastoor R, Elsas JD (2005) Characterization of microbial community involved in the suppression of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown on rockwood. Phytopathology 95:808–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Pujol M, De Clercq D, Cognet S, Lepoivre P, Jijakli MH (2004) Monitoring system for the biocontrol agent Pichia anomala strain K using quantitative competitive PCR-ELOSA. Plant Pathol 53:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Raaijmakers JM, Weller DM (2001) Exploiting the genetic diversity of Pseudomonas spp.: characterization of superior colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Q8r 1-96. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:2545–2554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Raaijmakers JM, Bonsall F, Weller DM (1999) Effect of population density of Pseudomonas fluorescens on production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol in the rhozosphere of wheat. Phytopathology 89:470–475CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Rezzonico F, Binder C, Défago G, Moënne-Loccoz Y (2004) The type III secretion system of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens KD targets the phytopathogenic chromista Pythium ultimum and promotes cucumber protection. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:991–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sanchez L, Weidmann S, Arnould C, Bernard AR, Gianninazzi S, Gianinazzi-Pearson V (2005) Pseudomonas fluorescens and Glomus mosseae trigger DM13-dependent activation of genes related to a signal transduction pathway in roots of Medicago truncatula. Plant Physiol 139:1065–1077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schena L, Finetti-Sialer M, Gallitelli D (2002) Molecular detection of strain L47 of Aureobasidium pullulans, a biocontrol agent of postharvest diseases. Plant Dis 86:54–60Google Scholar
  67. Schena L, Ippolito A, Zahavi T, Cohen L, Nigro F, Droby S (1999) Genetic diversity and biocontrol of Aureobasidium pullulans isolates against postharvest rots. Postharvest Biol Technol 17:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schnider-Keel U, Seematter A, Maurhofer M, Blumer C, Duffy B, Gigot-Bonnefoy C, Reimmann C, Notz R, Défago G, Haas D, Keel C (2000) Autoinduction of 2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol biosynthesis in the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and repression by the bacterial metabolites salicylate and pyoluteorin. J Bacteriol 182:1215–1225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shoresh M, Yedidia I, Chet I (2005) Involvement of jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling pathway in the systemic resistance induced in cucumber by Trichoderma asperellum T203. Phytopathology 95:76–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Sivasithamparam K, Ghisalberti EL (1998) Secondary metabolism in Trichoderma and Gliocladium. In: Kubicek CP, Harman GE (eds) Trichoderma and Gliocladium, vol1. Taylor and Francis, London, pp139–191Google Scholar
  71. Smith KP, Handelsman J, Goodman RM (1999) Genetic basis in plants for interactions with disease-suppressive bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:4786–4790Google Scholar
  72. Thomashow LS, Weller DM, Bonsall RF, Pierson LS (1990) Production of the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid by fluorescent Pseudomonas species in the rhizosphere of wheat. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:908–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Traquair JA, Shaw LA, Jarvis WR (1988) New species of Stephanoascus with Sporothrix anamorphs. Canad J Bot 66:926–933Google Scholar
  74. Tsuge K, Akiyama T, Shoda M (2001) Cloning, sequencing and characterization of the Iturin A operon. J Bacteriol 183:6265–6273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Validov S, Mavrodi O, de la Fuente L, Boronin A, Weller D, Thomashow L, Mavrodi DM (2005) Antagonistic activity and 2,4-diacetyl phloroglucinol-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. FEMS Microbiol Lett 242:249–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Van Loon LC, Glick GR (2004) Increased plant fitness by rhizobacteria. In: Sandermann H (ed) Molecular Ecotoxicology, vol 170. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp177–205Google Scholar
  77. Velusamy P, Gnanamanickam SS (2003) Identification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol production by plant-associated bacteria and its role in suppression of rice bacterial blight in India. Curr Sci 85:1270–1273Google Scholar
  78. Velusamy P, Immanuel JE, Gnanamanickam SS, Thomashow L (2006) Biological control of rice bacterial blight by plant-associated bacteria producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. Canad J Microbiol 52:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vincent MN, Harrison LA, Brackin JM, Kovacevich PA, Mukherji P, Weller DM, Pierson LA (1991) Genetic analysis of the antifungal activity of a soil-borne Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2928–2934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Woo SL, Donzelli B, Scala F, Mach R, Harman GE, Kubicek CP, Del Sorbo G, Lorito M (1999) Disruption of the ech42 (endochitinase-encoding) gene affects biocontrol activity in Trichoderma harzianum P1. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 12:419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Woo SL, Scala F, Ruocco M, Lorito M (2006) The molecular biology of the interactions between Trichoderma spp., phytopathogenic fungi and plants. Phytopathology 96:181–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Yakoby N, Zhou R, Kobiler I, Dinoor A, Prusky D (2001) Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides restriction enzyme-mediated integration mutants as biocontrol agents against anthracnose disease in avocado fruits. Phytopathology 91:143–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Yan Z, Reddy MS, Ryu CM, McInroy JA, Wilson M, Kloepper JW (2002) Induced systemic resistance against tomato late blight elicited by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Phytopathology 92:1329–1333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Zhang XX, Rainey PB (2007) The role of a P1-type ATPase from Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in copper homeostasis and plant colonization. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:581–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zimand G, Elad Y, Chet I (1996) Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on Botrytis cinerea. Phytopathology 86:1255–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Narayanasamy
    • 1
  1. 1.Former Professor and Head, Department of Plant PathologyTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatore-641 002India

Personalised recommendations