Advertisement

Changing Conceptions of Teaching as a Profession: Personal Reflections

  • Eric Hoyle

This chapter provides me with an opportunity to reflect on the concept that has constituted the leitmotif of my academic writing: the concept of profession. This has been linked throughout with my two other main interests. One is the nature of the school as an organization, and particularly the relationship between teacher autonomy and bureaucratic control. The other is the leadership and management of schools, and particularly the role of school leaders in supporting teachers in their professional task.

In retrospect, my approach has entailed a constant engagement with a series of dilemmas, the fundamental dilemma being rooted in the tension between two modes of organizing work in public sector organizations: the professional and the bureaucratic (managerial). Although I had throughout my writing implicitly adopted a ‘dilemmas’ approach, I hadn’t pondered on the nature of dilemmas until I encountered the following: “Dilemmas are neither problems to be solved nor issues to be faced. Problems are presumed solvable; issues can be negotiated and thus are resolvable. As we use the term in this chapter, we assert that dilemmas reveal deeper, more fundamental dichotomies. They present situation with equally valued alternatives. As a consequence, dilemmas cannot be solved or resolved” (Ogawa et al., 1999: 278).

Keywords

Teaching Profession Reform Movement Occupational Prestige Public Sector Organization Teacher Professionalism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott A (1988) The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labour. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  2. Auld R (1976) Report of the Public Enquiry into the William Tyndale Junior and Infant Schools. London: Inner London Education AuthorityGoogle Scholar
  3. Berlin I (1969) Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernstein B (1967) ‘Open schools, open society?’ New Society 10: 152-154Google Scholar
  5. Bidwell C (1965) ‘The school as a formal organization’ in J G March (ed) Handbook of Organizations. New York: Rand McNally, 927-1002Google Scholar
  6. Bolman L and Deal T (1984) Modern Approaches to Understanding and Managing Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  7. Bottery M (1998) Professionals and Policy: Management Strategy in a Competitive World. London: CassellGoogle Scholar
  8. Bottery M (2003) ‘The management and mismanagement of trust’. Educational Management and Administration 31(3) 245-261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coopers and Lybrand (1988) Local Management of Schools. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery OfficeGoogle Scholar
  10. Dale R (1989) The State and Educational Policy. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University PressGoogle Scholar
  11. Darling-Hammond L (1990) ‘Teacher professionalism: When and how?’ in A Lieberman (ed) Schools as Collaborative Cultures: Creating the Future Now. London:FalmerGoogle Scholar
  12. Falmer Eraut M (1994) Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence. London: FalmerGoogle Scholar
  13. Evans L (1998) Teacher Morale, Job Satisfaction and Motivation. London: Paul Chapman PublishingGoogle Scholar
  14. Evans L, Packwood A and Neill S (1994) The Meaning of Infant Teachers’ Work. London: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  15. Freidson E (1986) Professional Powers. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  16. Freidson E (2001) Professionalism: The Third Logic. Chicago, IL: Chicago University PressGoogle Scholar
  17. Gosden P H J H (1972) The Evolution of a Profession: The Contribution of Teachers’ Associations. Oxford: Basil BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  18. Grace G (1987) ‘Teachers and the state in Britain: A changing relation’ in M Lawn and G Grace (eds) Teachers: The Culture and Politics of Work. London: FalmerGoogle Scholar
  19. Ginsburg M (1997) ‘Professionalism or politics as a model for teachers work and lives?’ Educational Research Journal 12, 1-15Google Scholar
  20. Greenfield T B (1975) ‘Theory about organizations’ in M Hughes (ed) Administration Education: International Challenge. London: AthloneGoogle Scholar
  21. Gronn P (2000) ‘Distributed properties a new architecture for leadership’. Educational Management and Administration 28(3) 317-338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hargreaves A (1994) Changing Teachers, Changing Times. London: CassellGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris A (2004) ‘Distributed leadership and school improvement: Leading or Misleading? Educational Management Administration and Leadership 32 (1) 11-24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Helsby G (1999) Changing Teachers’ Work. Buckingham: Open University PressGoogle Scholar
  25. Herzberg F, Mausner B and Snyderman B (1959) Motivation to Work. New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoyle E (1965) ‘Organizational analysis in the field of education’. Research in Education 7(2), 97-114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoyle E (1969a) The Role of the Teacher. London: Routledge/Kegan PaulGoogle Scholar
  28. Hoyle E (1969b) ‘Professional stratification and anomie in the teaching profession’. Paedagogica Europaea 5 The Changing Role of the Teacher Education. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 60-71Google Scholar
  29. Hoyle E (1974) ‘Professionality, professionalism and control in teaching’ London Educational Review 3(2), 13-19Google Scholar
  30. Hoyle E (1980) ‘Professionalization and deprofessionalization in education’ in E Hoyle and J Megarry (eds) World Yearbook of Education, 1980: The Professional Development of Teachers. London: Kogan Page, 42-54Google Scholar
  31. Hoyle E (1981) ‘The teacher’s career’ in The Management of Staff. Open University Unit E323 Block 6 33-44Google Scholar
  32. Hoyle E (1982a) ‘The professionalization of teachers: A paradox’. British Journal of Educational Studies 30(2) 161-171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoyle E (1982b) ‘The micropolitics of educational organizations’. Educational Management and Administration 10(2)Google Scholar
  34. Hoyle E (1986) The Politics of School Management. London: Hodder and StoughtonGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoyle E (1995) ‘Changing concepts of a profession’ in H Busher and R Saran Managing Teachers as professionals in Schools. London: Kogan PageGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoyle E (1999) ‘The two faces of micropolitics’. School Leadership and Administration 19(2) 213-222Google Scholar
  37. Hoyle E (2001) ‘Teaching: Prestige, status and esteem’. Educational Management and Administration 29(1) 139-152Google Scholar
  38. Hoyle E and John P (1995) Professional Knowledge and Professional Practice. London: CassellGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoyle E and Wallace M (2005) Educational Leadership: Ambiguity, Professionals and Managerialism. London: SageGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoyle E and Wallace M (2006) ‘Beyond metaphors of management: the case for metaphoric redescription in education’ British Journal of Educational Studies 55(4) 426-442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoyle E and Wallace M (2007) ‘Educational reform: An ironic perspective’. Educational Management, Administration and Leadership 35(1) 9-25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jogmans K, Biemans H and Beijaard D (1998) ‘Teachers’ professional orientation and their involvement in school policy-making: The results of a Dutch study’. Educational Management and Administration 26(3) 293-304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Larson M S (1977) The Rise of Professional Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California PressGoogle Scholar
  44. Lawn M (1987) Servants of the State: The Contested Control of Teaching 1910-1930. London: FalmerGoogle Scholar
  45. Little J W (1990) ‘The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations’. Teachers’ College Record 91(4) 509-536Google Scholar
  46. Lortie D (1964) ‘The teacher and team teaching’ in J J Shaplin and H Olds (eds) Team Teaching. New York: Harper & RowGoogle Scholar
  47. Lortie D (1969) ‘The balance between control and autonomy in elementary school teaching’ in A Etzioni (ed) The Semi-Professions and their Organization. New York: Free PressGoogle Scholar
  48. Manzer R A (1970) Teachers and Politics. Manchester, UK: Manchester University PressGoogle Scholar
  49. March J G (1994) A Primer on Decision Making: How Decisions Happen. New York: Free PressGoogle Scholar
  50. March J G (1999) The Pursuit of Organizational Intelligence. Oxford: BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  51. March J G and Olsen P (1976) Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations. Bergen, Norway: UniversitetsforlagetGoogle Scholar
  52. March J G and Simon H (1958) Organizations. New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  53. Marshall T H (1963) ‘The recent history of professionalism in relation to social structure and social policy’ in T H Marshall (ed) Sociology at the Crossroads. London: Heinemann, 150-170Google Scholar
  54. McCulloch G, Helsby G and Knight P (2000) Politics and Professionalism: Teachers and the Curriculum. London: ContinuumGoogle Scholar
  55. Moore A, George R and Halpin D (2002) ‘The developing role of the headteacher in English schools: Management, leadership and pragmatism’. Educational Management and Adminitration 30(2) 175-198Google Scholar
  56. Nias J (1989) Primary Teachers Talking: A Study of Teaching as Work. London: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  57. Ogawa R, Crowson R and Goldring E (1999) ‘Enduring dilemmas in school organization’ in J Murphy and K Seashore Louis (eds) Handbook of Research on Educational Administration. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 277-295Google Scholar
  58. O’Neill O (2002) A Question of Trust Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  59. Osborn M, McNess E, Broadfoot P with Pollard A and Triggs P (2000) What Teachers Do. Changing Policy and Practice in Primary Education London: ContinuumGoogle Scholar
  60. Perkin H (1989) The Rise of Professional Society. London: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  61. Pollard A Broadfoot P Croll P Osborn M and Abbott D (1994) Changing English Primary Schools? The Impact of the Education Reform Act at Key Stage One London: CassellGoogle Scholar
  62. Sachs J (2003) The Activist Teaching Profession. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University PressGoogle Scholar
  63. Schumpeter J (1942) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Allen & Unwin Stoll L and Louis K S (eds) (2007) Professional Learning Communities: Divergence, Depths and Difficulties. Maidenhead, UK: Open University PressGoogle Scholar
  64. Sykes G (1999) ‘The ‘new professionalism’ in education: An appraisal’ in J Murphy and K S Louis (eds) Handbook of Research in Educational. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 227-249Google Scholar
  65. van Veen K, Sleegers P, Bergen T and Klaasen C (2001) ‘Professional orientations of secondary school teachers towards their work’. Teaching and Teacher Education 17(2) 213-226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Weick K (1976) ‘Educational organizations as loosely-coupled systems’. Administrative Science Quarterly 21(1) 1-19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Whitty G (1996) ‘Marketization, the state and the re-formation of the teaching profession’ in A H Halsey et al. (eds) Education, Culture, Economy and Society. Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  68. Woods, P (1995) Creative Teachers in Primary Schools. Buckingham, UK: Open University PressGoogle Scholar
  69. Woods P, Jeffrey B, Troman G and Boyle M (1997) Restructuring Schools, Restructuring Teachers: Responding to Change in the Primary School. Buckingham, UK: Open University PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Hoyle
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of EducationUniversity of BristolUK

Personalised recommendations