The regulated release of transmitters from astrocytes

  • Daniel S. Evanko
  • Jai-Yoon Sul
  • Qi Zhang
  • Philip G. Haydon

Abstract

Research over the past decade has given us novel insights into the diverse roles played by astrocytes in the functioning of numerous processes within the central nervous system (CNS) that have been the focus of several recent reviews (Anderson and Swanson, 2000; Carmignoto, 2000; Hussy et al., 2000; Araque et al., 2001; Haydon, 2001; Mazzanti et al., 2001; Cotrina and Nedergaard, 2002; Chen and Swanson, 2003). This review focuses on recent observations concerning the mechanisms of release of chemical transmitters from astrocytes. Two observations in 1994 led to a significant breakthrough in our thinking about astrocyte function (Nedergaard, 1994; Parpura et al., 1994). These studies showed that calcium elevations in astrocytes could lead to delayed neuronal calcium elevations. However, the mechanisms believed to underlie astrocyte-to-neuron signaling were quite distinct. While Nedergaard concluded that gap junctions mediate astrocyte-to-neuron signaling, Parpura et al. found evidence to support the notion that glutamate released from the astrocyte leads to an N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent elevation of neuronal calcium. Although additional support for the role of gap junctions has come from studies in the locus coeruleus (Alvarez-Maubecin et al., 2000), there is greater evidence to support the concept that it is the extracellular release of chemical transmitters from astrocytes that mediates astrocyte-to-neuron signaling.

Keywords

Ischemia Glycine Retina NMDA Acetylcholine 

Abbreviations

A9C

Anthracene-9-carboxylate

ANP

Atrial natriuretic peptide

BoNT

Botulinum neurotoxin

BzATP

3-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl ATP

CNS

Central nervous system

Cx

Connexin

DIDS

4,4x′-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2′-disulfonate

DPC

Diphenylamin-2-carboxylate

EAA

Excitatory amino acid

FFA

Flufenamic acid

GABA

γ-aminobutyric acid

IAA-94

R(+)-[(6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1-oxo-1 H-inden-5-yl)-oxy]acetic acid

NFA

Niflumic acid

NMDA

N-methyl-D-aspartate

NPPB

5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino)benzoic acid

PPADS

Pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′-4′-disulfonic acid

SD

Spreading depression

SITS

4-acetamido-4′-isothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2′-disulfonate

SLMVs

Synaptic-like microvesicles

TeNT

Tetanus neurotoxin

[X±]i

Intracellular concentration of ion X

[X±] o

Extracellular concentration of ion X

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel S. Evanko
    • 1
  • Jai-Yoon Sul
    • 1
  • Qi Zhang
    • 1
  • Philip G. Haydon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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