More and more devices are being equipped with wireless capabilities, causing wireless systems to move towards the commodity market. This means that the price pressure on wireless products is high, creating a drive for low-cost solutions. This is especially an issue for multiple antenna systems, since they require multiple radio frequency (RF) frontends. Furthermore, the growing number of wireless standards forces for flexible solutions, which can support several standards.

The concept of direct-conversion[118] for frequency translation is promising to fulfill these requirements, since it does not need external intermediate frequency (IF) filters and image rejection filters [119]. Instead, the image rejection is provided by the signal processing in the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) arm. Therefore, this architecture opens the door to monolithic integration of the analogue front-end and, thus, low-cost implementations.


Mean Square Error Radio Frequency MIMO Channel MIMO OFDM System Baseband Signal 
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© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

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