Ecosystem Management

In this chapter, you will learn:
  1. 1.

    What ecosystem management is

     
  2. 2.

    How and why the concept of ecosystem management developed

     
  3. 3.

    The scientific basis of ecosystem management

     
  4. 4.

    Methods of implementing ecosystem management and what they can accomplish

     

One definition of an ecosystem is all the organisms in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to trophic structure, biotic diversity, and material cycles (Odum 1971). Put simply, ecosystems are energy- and nutrient-processing systems with physical structures and functions that circulate matter and distribute energy. Although the ecosystem concept dates to the early twentieth century, the idea of managing ecosystems is relatively new. Of all modern efforts in conservation, none has proven more elusive in definition or more controversial in implementation than “ecosystem management.” As conservationist Michael Bean wrote, “rarely has a concept gone so directly from obscurity to meaninglessness without any intervening period of coherence” (Bean 1997). Less cynically but not more optimistically, Berry et al. (1998) noted that, “No single operational definition of ecosystem management exists, although its basic principles are understood.”

Keywords

Biomass Sedimentation Coherence Compaction Charcoal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, T. F. H., and T. W. Hoekstra. 1992. Toward a unified ecology. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Allendorf, F. W., D. Bayles, D. L. Bottom, K. P. Currens, C. A. Frissell, D. Hankin, J. A.Lichatowich, W. Nehlsen, P. C. Trotter, and T. H. Williams. 1997. Prioritizing Pacific salmon stocks for conservation. Conservation Biology 11:140–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Augustine, D. J., and L. E. Frelich. 1998. Effects of white-tailed deer on populations of an understory forb in fragmented deciduous forests. Conservation Biology 12:995–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, W. L. 1989. Landscape ecology and nature reserve design in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Ecology 70:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber, M. C. (ed). 1994. Environmental monitoring and assessment program indicator development strategy. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, GA, EPA/620/R-94/022Google Scholar
  6. Bean, M. J. 1997. A policy perspective on biodiversity protection and ecosystem management. In: S. T. A. Pickett, R. S. Ostfeld, M. Shachak, and G. E. Likens (eds) The ecological basis of conservation: heterogeneity, ecosystems, and diversity. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 23–28Google Scholar
  7. Beecham, J. J. 1983. Population characteristics of black bears in west central Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management 47:405–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belsky, A. J., and D. M. Blumenthal. 1997. Effects of livestock grazing on stand dynamics and soils in upland forests of the Interior West. Conservation Biology 11:315–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergerud, A. T., and W. B. Ballard. 1988. Wolf predation on caribou: the Nelchina herd case history: a different interpretation. Journal of Wildlife Management 52:344–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berry, J., G. D. Brewer, J. C. Gordon, and D. R. Patton. 1998. Closing the gap between ecosystem management and ecosystem research. Policy Sciences 31:55–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyce, M. S. 1998. Ecological-process management and ungulates: Yellowstone’s conservation paradigm. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:391–398Google Scholar
  12. Boyce, M. S., and N. F. Payne. 1997. Applied disequilibriums: riparian habitat management for wildlife. In: M. S. Boyce and A. Haney (eds) Ecosystem management: applications for sustainable forest and wildlife resources. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 133–146Google Scholar
  13. Brennan, R. C., C. T. de Wit, W. A. Williams, and E. V. Quattrin. 1970. The use of digital simulation language for ecological modeling. Oecologia 4:113–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brinkerhoff, J. M. 2002. Government-nonprofit partnership: a defining network. Public Administration and Development 22:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bush, M. B., and P. A. Colinvaux. 1994. Tropical forest disturbance: paleoecological records from Darien, Panama. Ecology 75:1761–1768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Butler, K. F., and T. M. Koontz. 2005. Theory into practice: implementing ecosystem management objectives in the USDA Forest Service. Environmental Management 35:138–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caldwell, L. K., C. F. Wilkinson, and M. A. Shannon. 1994. Making ecosystem policy: three decades of change. Journal of Forestry 92(4):7–10Google Scholar
  18. Chadde, S. W., and C. E. Kay. 1991. Tall-willow communities on Yellowstone’s northern range: a test of the “natural regulation” paradigm. In: R. B. Keiter and M. S. Boyce (eds) The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: redefining America’s wilderness heritage. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 231–262Google Scholar
  19. Christensen, N. L., A. M. Bartuska, J. H. Brown, S. Carpenter, C. D’Antonio, R. Francis, J. F. Franklin, J. A. MacMahon, R. F. Noss, D. J. Parsons, C. H. Peterson, M. G. Turner, and R. G. Woodmansee. 1996. The report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management. Ecological Applications 6:665–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coughenour, M. B., F. J. Singer, and J. Reardon. 1994. The Parker transects revisited:long-term herbaceous vegetation trends on Yellowstone’s northern winter range. In: D. G. Despain (ed) Plants and their environments: proceedings of the first biennial scientific conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Technical report NPS/NRYELL/NRTR-93XX. US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Natural Resources Publication Office, Denver, CO, pp 73–95Google Scholar
  21. Czech, B., and P. R. Krausman. 1997. Implications of an ecosystem management literature review. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25:667–675Google Scholar
  22. D’Erchia, F. 1997. Geographic information systems and remote sensing applications for ecosystem management. In: M. S. Boyce and A. Haney (eds) Ecosystem management: applications for sustainable forest and wildlife resources. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 201–225Google Scholar
  23. Di Stefano, J. 2004. The importance of ecological research for ecosystem management: the case of browsing by swamp wallabies (Wallabia bicolor) in commercially harvested native forests. Ecological Management and Restoration 5:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Flather, C. H., M. S. Knowles, and I. A. Kendall. 1998. Threatened and endangered species geography. BioScience 48:365–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Forsman, E. D. 1980. Habitat utilization by spotted owls in the west-central Cascades of Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis, ORGoogle Scholar
  26. Forsman, E. D., and E. C. Meslow. 1985. Old-growth forest retention for spotted owls, how much do they need? In: R. J. Gutierrez and A. B. Carey (eds) Ecology and management of the spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest. General technical report PNW-185. US Forest Service, pp 58–59Google Scholar
  27. Forsman, E. D., E. C. Meslow, and H. M. Wight. 1984. Distribution and biology of the spotted owl in Oregon. Wildlife Monographs 87:1–64Google Scholar
  28. Franklin, J. F. 1993. Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems, or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3:202–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Frederiksen, M., S. Wanless, M. P. Harris, P. Rothery, and L. J. Wilson. 2004. The role of industrial fisheries and oceanographic change in the decline of North Sea black-legged kittiwakes. Journal of Applied Ecology 41:1130–1140Google Scholar
  30. Fredrickson, L. H. 1997. Managing forested wetlands. In: M. S. Boyce and A. Haney (eds) Ecosystem management: applications for sustainable forest and wildlife resources. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 147–177Google Scholar
  31. Fuller, T. K. 1989. Population dynamics of wolves in north-central Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 105Google Scholar
  32. Gordon, J. C., and J. Lyons. 1997. The emerging role of science and scientists in ecosystem management. In: K. A. Kohm and J. F. Franklin (eds) Creating a forestry for the 21st century: the science of ecosystem management. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 447–453Google Scholar
  33. Grumbine, R. E. 1994. What is ecosystem management? Conservation Biology 8:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gutrich, J., D. Donovan, M. Finucane, W. Focht, F. Histzhusen, S. Manopimoke, D. McCauley, B. Norton, P. Sabatier, J. Salzman, and V. Sasmitawidjaja. 2005. Science in the public process of ecosystem management: lessons from Hawaii, southeast Asia, Africa, and the US mainland. Journal of Environmental Management 76:197–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haeuber, R. 1996. Setting the environmental policy agenda: the case of ecosystem management. Natural Resources Journal 36:1–27Google Scholar
  36. Haeuber, R., and J. Franklin. 1996. Forum: perspectives on ecosystem management. Ecological Applications 6:692–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hall, S. J., and B. Mainprize. 2004. Toward ecosystem-based fisheries management. Fish and Fisheries 5:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harrison, S., A. Stahl, and D. Doak. 1992. Spatial models and spotted owls: exploring some biological issues behind recent events. In: D. Ehrenfeld (ed) The landscape perspective; readings from Conservation Biology. Blackwell Science and The Society for Conservation Biology, Cambridge, MA, pp 177–180Google Scholar
  39. Hillborn, R. 1995. A model to evaluate alternative management strategies for the Seregenti-Mara Ecosystem. In: A. R. E. Sinclair and P. Arcese (eds) Serengeti II: dynamics, management, and conservation of an ecosystem. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, pp 617–637Google Scholar
  40. Holling, C. S. 1995. What barriers? What bridges? In: L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light (eds) Barriers and bridges to renewal of ecosystems and institutions. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 3–25Google Scholar
  41. IUCN. 2000. Vision for water and nature. A world strategy for conservation and sustainable management of water resources in the 21st century. IUCN, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  42. Kay, C. E., and F. H. Wagner. 1994. Historical condition of woody vegetation onYellowstone’s Northern Range: a critical evaluation of the “natural regulation” paradigm. In: D. G. Despain (ed) Plants and their environments: proceedings of the first biennial scientific conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Technical report NPS/NRYELL/NRTR-93XX. US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Natural Resources Publication Office, Denver, CO, pp 151–169Google Scholar
  43. Knight, D. H., and L. L. Wallace. 1989. The Yellowstone fires: issues in landscape ecology. BioScience 39:700–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lamont, A. 2006. Policy characterization of ecosystem management. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 113:5–18Google Scholar
  45. Lande, R. 1988. Demographic models of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). Oecologia 75:601–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Leach, M. K., and T. J. Givnish. 1996. Ecological determinants in species loss in remnant prairies. Science 273:1555–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lee, K. N. 1993. Compass and gyroscope: integrating science and politics for the environment. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  48. Lockwood, J. L., and K. H. Fenn. 2000. The recovery of the Cape Sable seaside sparrow through restoration of the Everglades ecosystem. Endangered Species Update 17(1):10–14Google Scholar
  49. Loehle, C. 1991. Managing and monitoring ecosystems in the face of heterogeneity. In: J. Kolasa and S. T. A. Pickett (eds) Ecological heterogeneity. Ecological Studies 86. Springer, New York, pp 144–159Google Scholar
  50. Lyle, J. T. 1985. Design for human ecosystems: landscape, land use, and natural resources. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Major, J. 1969. Historical development of the ecosystem concept. In: G. M. Van Dyne (ed) The ecosystem concept in natural resource management. Academic, New York, pp 9–22Google Scholar
  52. McClanahan, T. R., and D. O. Obura. 1996. Coral reefs and nearshore fisheries. In: T. R. McClanahan and T. P. Young (eds) East African ecosystems and their conservation. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 67–99Google Scholar
  53. McInnes, P. F., R. J. Naiman, J. Pastor, and Y. Cohen. 1992. Effects of moose browsing on vegetation and litter of the boreal forest, Isle Royale, Michigan, USA. Ecology 73:2059–2075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McLaren, B. E., and R. O. Peterson. 1994. Wolves, moose, and tree rings on Isle Royale. Science 266:1555–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McNaughton, S. J. 1979. Grazing as an optimization process: grass-ungulate relationships in the Serengeti. American Naturalist 113:691–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McNaughton, S. J. 1984. Grazing lawns: animals in herds, plant form, and coevolution. American Naturalist 124:863–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McNaughton, S. J., R. W. Ruess, and S. W. Seagle. 1988. Large mammals and process dynamics in African ecosystems. BioScience 38:794–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mech, L. D. 1995. The challenge and opportunity of recovering wolf populations. Conservation Biology 9:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meidinger, E. E. 1997. Organizational and legal challenges for ecosystem management. In: K. A. Kohm and J. F. Franklin (eds) Creating a forestry for the 21st century: the science of ecosystem management. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 361–379Google Scholar
  60. Meslow, E. C. 1993. Spotted owl protection: unintentional evolution toward ecosystem management. Endangered Species Update 10(3–4):34–38Google Scholar
  61. Michener, W. K., E. R. Blood, J. B. Box, C. A. Couch, S. W. Golladay, D. J. Hippe, R. J. Mitchell, and B. J. Palik. 1998. Tropical storm flooding of a coastal plain landscape. BioScience 48:696–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. More, T. A. 1996. Forestry’s fuzzy concepts: an examination of ecosystem management. Journal of Forestry 94(8):19–23Google Scholar
  63. Norton, D. J., and D. G. Davis. 1997. Policies for protecting aquatic diversity. In: M. S. Boyce and A. Haney (eds) Ecosystem management: applications for sustainable forest and wildlife resources. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 276–300Google Scholar
  64. Noss, R. F., H. B. Quigley, M. G. Hornocker, T. Merrill, and P. C. Paquet. 1996. Conservation biology and carnivore conservation in the Rocky Mountains. Conservation Biology 10:949–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Odum, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of ecology, 3rd edition. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  66. Paine, R. T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100:65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Paine, R. T. 1969. The Pisaster-Tegula interaction: prey patches, predator preference, and intertidal community structure. Ecology 50:950–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pastor, J., B. Dewey, R. J. Naiman, P. F. McInnes, and Y. Cohen. 1993. Moose browsing and soil fertility in the boreal forests of Isle Royale National Park. Ecology 74:467–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Poiani, K. A., B. D. Richter, M. G. Anderson, and H. E. Richter. 2000. Biodiversity conservation at multiple scales: functional sites, landscapes, and networks. BioScience 50:133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rama Mohan Rao, M. S., V. N. Sharda, S. C. Mohan, S. S. Shrimali, G. Sastry, P. Narain, and I. P. Abrol. 1999. Soil conservation regions for erosion control and sustained land productivity in India. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 54:402–409Google Scholar
  71. Richardson, M. S., and R. C. Gatti. 1999. Prioritizing wetland restoration activity within a Wisconsin watershed using GIS modeling. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 54:537–542Google Scholar
  72. Romme, W. H., M. G. Turner, L. K. Wallace, and J. S. Walker. 1995. Aspen, elk, and fire in northern Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 76:2097–2106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rondinini, C., S. Stuart, and L. Boitani. 2005. Habitat suitability models and the shortfall in conservation planning for African vertebrates. Conservation Biology 19:1488–1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Seidensticker, J. C., M. G. Hornocker, W. V. Wiles, and J. P. Messick. 1973. Mountain lion social organization in the Idaho Primitive Area. Wildlife Monographs 35:1–60Google Scholar
  75. Shaffer, M. L. 1992. Keeping the grizzly bear in the American West: a strategy for real recovery. The Wilderness Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  76. Shinneman, D. J., J. Watson, and W. W. Martin. 2000. The state of the southern Rockies Ecoregion: a look at species imperilment, ecosystem protection, and a conservation opportunity. Endangered Species Update 17(1):2–9Google Scholar
  77. Sparks, R. E. 1995. Need for ecosystem management of large rivers and their floodplains. BioScience 45:168–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Thomas, J. W., E. D. Forsman, J. B. Lint, E. C. Meslow, D. R. Noon, and J. Verner. 1990. A conservation strategy for the northern spotted owl. US Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Park Service, Portland, ORGoogle Scholar
  79. US Congressional Research Service. 1994. Ecosystem management: federal agency activities. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  80. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Grizzly bear recovery plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Missoula, MTGoogle Scholar
  81. Van Dyke, F. 2003. Conservation biology: foundations, concepts, applications. MaGraw-Hill, New yorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Van Dyke, F., and J. A. Darragh. 2006. Short- and longer-term effects of fire and herbivory on sagebrush communities in south-central Montana. Environmental Management 38:365–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Van Dyne, G. M. (ed) 1969. The ecosystem concept in natural resource management. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Wagner, F. H. 1969. Ecosystem concepts in fish and game management. In: G. M. Van Dyne (ed) The ecosystem concept in natural resource management. Academic, New York, pp 259–307Google Scholar
  85. Wagner, F. H. 1977. Species vs. ecosystem management: concepts and practices. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 42:14–24Google Scholar
  86. Wagner, F. H., and C. E. Kay. 1993. “Natural” or “healthy” ecosystems”: are US parks providing them? In: M. J. McDonnell and S. T. A. Pickett (eds) Humans as components of ecosystems. Springer, New York, pp 157–270Google Scholar
  87. Welcomme, R. L. 1985. River fisheries. Food and Agriculture Organization Fisheries technical paper 262. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  88. Wilcove, D. S. 1993. Turning conservation goals into tangible results: the case of the spotted owl and old-growth forests. In: P. J. Edwards, R. M. May, and N. R. Webb (eds) Large-scale ecology and conservation biology: the 35th symposium of British Ecological Society with the Society for Conservation Biology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 313–329Google Scholar
  89. Wolanski, E., E. Gereta, M. Borner, and S. Mduma. 1999. Water, migration, and the Serengeti Ecosystem. American Scientist 87:526–533Google Scholar
  90. Yaffee, S. L., A. F. Phillips, I. C. Frentz, P. W. Hardy, S. M. Malecki, and B. E. Thorpe.1996. Ecosystem management in the United States: an assessment of current experience. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Personalised recommendations