Advertisement

Role of Sulfur for Plant Production in Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems

  • Fang-jie Zhao
  • Michael Tausz
  • Luit J. De Kok
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 27)

Sulfur is essential for plant growth and functioning. Sulfate taken up by the roots is the primary sulfur source for growth, but additionally plants are able to utilize absorbed sulfur gases by the shoot. Prior to its assimilation sulfur needs to be reduced and cysteine is the primary precursor or sulfur donor for other plant sulfur metabolites. Sulfur is of great significance for the structure of proteins and functioning of enzymes and it plays an important role in the defense of plants against stresses and pests. Sulfur metabolites such as glutathione provide protection of plants against oxidative stress, heavy metals and xenobiotics. Secondary sulfur compounds (viz. glucosinolates, γ-glutamyl peptides and alliins), phytoalexins, sulfur-rich proteins (thionins), localized deposition of elemental sulfur and the release of volatile sulfur compounds may provide resistance against pathogens and herbivory. Plant species vary largely in sulfur requirement, and an adequate and balanced sulfur nutrition is crucial for their production, quality and health. The assimilation of sulfur and nitrogen are strongly interrelated and sulfur deficiency in plants can be diagnosed by the nitrogen to sulfur ratio of plant tissue. In agricultural ecosystems, the occurrence of sulfur deficiency of soils can easily be corrected by the application of sulfur fertilizers, which additionally prevents negative environmental side effects such as leakage of nitrate to drainage water. Plants in natural ecosystems generally have an adequate sulfur supply, which partly originates from atmospheric sulfur inputs. Humans and animals rely on plants for their reduced sulfur, and plant sulfur nutrition has a decisive effect on food quality, e.g., availability of methionine, breadmaking and malting quality, and on health, because some secondary sulfur compounds have significance as phytopharmaceuticals. A balanced sulfur diet is essential in animal feeding and deficiency negatively affects sheep wool production, though excessive sulfur may induce copper or selenium deficiency in cattle.

Keywords

Oilseed Rape Backhuys Publisher Sulphur Fertilisation Sulfur Requirement Sulfoquinovosyl Diacylglycerol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allam AI and Hollis JP (1972) Sulphide inhibition of oxidases in rice roots. Phytopathology 62: 634–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong J and Armstrong W (2005) Rice: sulfide-induced barriers to root radial oxygen loss, Fe2+ and water uptake, and lateral root emergence. Ann Bot 96: 625–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armstrong J, Afreen-Zobayed F and Armstrong W (1996) Phragmites die-back: sulphide- and acetic acid-induced bud and root death, lignifications, and blockages with the aeration and vascular systems. New Phytol 134: 601–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Augustin S, Bolte A, Holzhausen M and Wolff B (2005) Exceedance of critical loads of nitrogen and sulphur and its relation to forest conditions. Eur J For Res 124: 289–300Google Scholar
  5. Bates TS, Lamb BK, Guenther A, Dignon J and Stoiber RE (1992) Sulfur emission to the atmosphere from natural sources. J Atmos Chem 14: 315–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell C, Jones J, Franklin J, Milford G and Leigh R (1995) Sulfate supply and its effects on sap quality during growth in sugar beet storage roots. Z Pflanzenernähr Bodenk 158: 93–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benning C (1998) Biosynthesis and function of the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49: 53–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blagrove RJ, Gillespie JM and Randall PJ (1976) Effect of sulphur supply on the seed globulin composition of Lupinus angustifolius. Aust J Plant Physiol 3: 173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blair GJ (2002) Sulphur fertilisers: a global perspective. Proceedings No. 498. International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Blake-Kalff MMA, Harrison KR, Hawkesford MJ, Zhao FJ and McGrath SP (1998) Distribution of sulfur within oilseed rape leaves in response to sulfur deficiency during vegetative growth. Plant Physiol 118: 1337–1344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blake-Kalff MMA, Hawkesford MJ, Zhao FJ and McGrath SP (2000) Diagnosing sulfur deficiency in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Soil 225: 95–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blake-Kalff MMA, Zhao FJ and McGrath SP (2002) Sulphur deficiency diagnosis using plant tissue analysis. Proceedings No. 503. International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Block E (1992) The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium. Implications for the organic chemistry of sulfur. Angew Chem Int Ed Eng 31: 1135–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bloem E, Haneklaus S and Schnug E (2004) Influence of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on the alliin content of onions and garlic. J Plant Nutr 27: 1827–1839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bourgis F, Roje S, Nuccio ML, Fisher DB, Tarczynski MC, Li CJ, Herschbach C, Rennenberg H, Pimenta MJ, Shen TL, Gage DA and Hanson AD (1999) S-methylmethionine plays a major role in phloem sulfur transport and is synthesized by a novel type of methyltransferase. Plant Cell 11: 1485–1497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown L, Scholefield D, Jewkes EC, Preedy N, Wadge K and Butler M (2000) The effect of sulphur application on the efficiency of nitrogen use in two contrasting grassland soils. J Agric Sci 135: 131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brunold C (1990) Reduction of sulfate to sulfide. In: Rennenberg H, Brunold C, De Kok LJ and Stulen I (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Fundamental, Environmental and Agricultural Aspects, pp 13–31, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  18. Brunold C (1993) Regulatory interactions between sulfate and nitrate assimilation. In: De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Rennenberg H, Brunold C and Rauser W (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Regulatory, Agricultural and Environmental Aspects, pp 125–138, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  19. Brunold C, Von Ballmoos P, Hesse H, Fell D and Kopriva S (2003) Interactions between sulfur, nitrogen and carbon metabolism. In: Davidian J-C, Grill D, De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Hawkesford MJ, Schnug E and Rennenberg H (eds) Sulfur Transport and Assimilation in Plants: Regulation, Interaction and Signaling, pp 45–56, Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  20. Buchner P, Stuiver CEE, Westerman S, Wirtz M, Hell R, Hawkesford MJ and De Kok LJ (2004) Regulation of sulfate uptake and expression of sulfate transporter genes in Brassica oleracea L. as affected by atmospheric H2S and pedospheric sulfate nutrition. Plant Physiol 136: 3396–3408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cappellato R, Peters NE and Meyers TP (1998) Above-ground sulfur cycling in adjacent coniferous and deciduous forests and watershed sulfur retention in the Georgia Piedmont, U.S.A. Water Air Soil Pollut 103: 151–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carlson PRJr and Forrest J (1982) Uptake of dissolved sulfide by Spartina alterniflora: evidence from natural sulfur isotope ratios. Science 216: 633–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cobbett C and Goldsbrough P (2002) Phytochelatins and metallothioneins: roles in heavy metal detoxification and homeostasis. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53: 159–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coolong TW and Randle WM (2003a) Ammonium nitrate fertility levels influence flavor development in hydroponically grown “Granex 33” onion. J Sci Food Agric 83: 477–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coolong TW and Randle WM (2003b) Temperature influences flavor intensity and quality in “Granex 33” onion. J Am Soc Hort Sci 128: 176–181Google Scholar
  26. Cooper RM and Williams JS (2004) Elemental sulphur as an induced antifungal substance in plant defence. J Exp Bot 55: 1947–1953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cram WJ (1990) Uptake and transport of sulfate. In: Rennenberg H, Brunold C, De Kok LJ and Stulen I (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Fundamental, Environmental and Agricultural Aspects, pp 3–11, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  28. Davidian J-C, Hatzfeld Y, Cathala N, Tagmount A and Vidmar JJ (2000) Sulfate uptake and transport in plants. In: Brunold C, Rennenberg H, De Kok LJ, Stulen I and Davidian J-C (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Molecular Biochemical and Physiological Aspects, pp 19–40, Paul Haupt, BernGoogle Scholar
  29. De Kok LJ (1990) Sulfur metabolism in plants exposed to atmospheric sulfur. In: Rennenberg H, Brunold C, De Kok LJ and Stulen I (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Fundamental, Environmental and Agricultural Aspects, pp 111–130, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  30. De Kok LJ and Stulen I (1993) Functions of glutathione in plants under oxidative stress. In: De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Rennenberg H, Brunold C and Rauser WE (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Regulatory, Agricultural and Environmental Aspects, pp 125–138, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  31. De Kok LJ and Tausz M (2001) The role of glutathione in plant reaction and adaptation to air pollutants. In: Grill D, Tausz M and De Kok LJ (eds) Significance of Glutathione to Plant Adaptation to the Environment, pp 185–201, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  32. De Kok LJ, Stuiver CEE, Rubinigg M, Westerman S and Grill D (1997) Impact of atmospheric sulfur deposition on sulfur metabolism in plants: H2S as sulfur source for sulfur deprived Brassica oleracea L. Bot Acta 110: 411–419Google Scholar
  33. De Kok LJ, Stuiver CEE and Stulen I (1998) Impact of atmospheric H2S on plants. In: De Kok LJ and Stulen I (eds) Responses of Plant Metabolism to Air Pollution and Global Change, pp 41–63, Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  34. De Kok LJ, Westerman S, Stuiver CEE and Stulen I (2000) Atmospheric H2S as plant sulfur source: interaction with pedospheric sulfur nutrition – a case study with Brassica oleracea L. In: Brunold C, Rennenberg H, De Kok LJ, Stulen I and Davidian J-C (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Molecular, Biochemical and Physiological Aspects, pp 41–56, Paul Haupt, BernGoogle Scholar
  35. De Kok LJ, Castro A, Durenkamp M, Stuiver CEE, Westerman S, Yang L and Stulen I (2002a) Sulphur in plant physiology. Proceedings No. 500, pp 1–26, The International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. De Kok LJ, Stuiver CEE, Westerman S and Stulen I (2002b) Elevated levels of hydrogen sulfide in the plant environment: nutrient or toxin. In: Omasa K, Saji H, Youssefian S and Kondo N (eds) Air Pollution, Biotechnology in Plants, pp 201–213, Springer, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  37. De Kok LJ, Durenkamp M, Yang L and Stulen I (2007) Atmospheric sulfur. In: Hawkesford MJ and De Kok LJ (eds) Sulfur in Plants – an Ecological Perspective, pp 91–106, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  38. Dijkshoorn W and van Wijk AL (1967) The sulphur requirement of plants as evidenced by the sulphur–nitrogen ratio in the organic matter: a review of published data. Plant Soil 26: 129–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dobermann A, Cassman KG, Mamaril CP and Sheehy JE (1998) Management of phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in intensive, irrigated lowland rice. Field Crops Res 56: 113–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Droux M, Ruffet ML, Douce R and Job D (1998) Interactions between serine acetyltransferase and O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase in higher plants: structural, kinetic properties of the free, bound enzymes. Eur J Biochem 155: 235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Durenkamp M and De Kok LJ (2002) The impact of atmospheric H2S on growth and sulfur metabolism of Allium cepa L. Phyton 42(3): 55–63Google Scholar
  42. Durenkamp M and De Kok LJ (2003) Impact of atmospheric H2S on sulfur and nitrogen metabolism in Allium species, cultivars. In: Davidian J-C, Grill D, De Kok LJ, Stulen H, Hawkesford MJ, Schnug E and Rennenberg H (eds) Sulfur Transport and Assimilation in Plants: Regulation, Interaction and Signaling, pp 197–199, Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  43. Durenkamp M and De Kok LJ (2004) Impact of pedospheric and atmospheric sulphur nutrition on sulphur metabolism of Allium cepa L. a species with a potential sink capacity for secondary sulphur compounds. J Exp Bot 55: 1821–1830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Edmeades DC, Thorrold BS and Roberts AHC (2005) The diagnosis and correction of sulfur deficiency and the management of sulfur requirements in New Zealand pastures: a review. Aust J Exp Agric 45: 1205–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Edwards PJ (1998) Sulfur cycling, retention, and mobility in soils: a review. USDA General Technical Report NE-250, pp 1–18, USDA Forest Services, RadnorGoogle Scholar
  46. Edwards SJ, Britton G and Collin HA (1994) The biosynthetic pathway of the S-alk(en) yl-L-cysteine sulphoxides (flavor precursors) in species of Allium. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 38: 181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eppendorfer WH (1971) Effects of S, N and P on amino acid composition of field beans (Vicia faba) and responses of the biological value of the seed protein to S-amino acid content. J Sci Food Agric 22: 501–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Eppendorfer WH and Eggum BO (1995) Sulfur amino-acid content and nutritive value of pea and cauliflower crude protein as influenced by sulfur deficiency. Z Pflanzenernähr Bodenk 158: 89–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ernst WHO (1990) Ecological aspects of sulfur metabolism. In: Rennenberg H, Brunold C, De Kok LJ and Stulen I (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Fundamental, Environmental, and Agricultural Aspects, pp 131–144, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  50. Ernst WHO (1993) Ecological aspects of sulfur in higher plants: the impact of SO2 and the evolution of the biosynthesis of organic sulfur compounds on populations, ecosystems. In: De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Rennenberg H, Brunold C and Rauser WE (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Regulatory, Agricultural and Environmental Aspects, pp 125–138, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  51. Ernst WHO (1997) Life-history syndromes and the ecology of plants from high sulphur habitats. In: Cram WJ, De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Brunold C and Rennenberg H (eds) Sulfur Metabolism in Higher Plants: Molecular, Ecophysiological and Nutritional Aspects, pp 289–291, Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  52. Fahey JW, Zhang YS and Talalay P (1997) Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 94: 10367–10372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fahey JW, Zalcmann AT and Talalay P (2001) The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry 56: 5–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fahey JW, Haristoy X, Dolan PM, Kensler TW, Scholtus I, Stephenson KK, Talalay P and Lozniewski A (2002) Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 99: 7610–7615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fenwick GR, Heaney RK and Mullin WJ (1983) Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants. CRC Critic Rev Food Sci Nutr 18: 123–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Flaete NES, Hollung K, Ruud L, Sogn T, Faergestad EM, Skarpeid HJ, Magnus EM and Uhlen AK (2005) Combined nitrogen and sulphur fertilisation and its effect on wheat quality and protein composition measured by SE-FPLC and proteomics. J Cereal Sci 41: 357–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ford HW (1973) Levels of hydrogen sulfide toxic to citrus roots. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 98: 66–68Google Scholar
  58. Foyer CH and Noctor G (2001) The molecular biology, metabolism of glutathione. In: Grill D, Tausz M and De Kok LJ (eds) Significance of Glutathione to Plant Adaptation to the Environment, pp 27–56, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  59. Friedman M (1996) Nutritional value of proteins from different food sources: a review. J Agric Food Chem 44: 6–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Friedman M (2003) Chemistry, biochemistry, and safety of acrylamide: a review. J Agric Food Chem 51: 4504–4526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fry B, Scalan RS, Winters JK and Parker PL (1982) Sulphur uptake by salt grasses, mangroves, and seagrasses in anaerobic sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 46: 1121–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gayler KR and Sykes GE (1985) Effects of nutritional stress on the storage proteins of soybeans. Plant Physiol 78: 582–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Germida JJ and Janzen HH (1993) Factors affecting the oxidation of elemental sulfur in soils. Fertilizer Res 35: 101–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Giovanelli J (1990) Regulatory aspects of cysteine, methionine synthesis. In: Rennenberg H, Brunold C, De Kok LJ and Stulen I (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Fundamental, Environmental and Agricultural Aspects, pp 33–48, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  65. Glawisching E, Mikkelsen MD and Balkier BA (2003) Glucosinolates: biosynthesis, metabolism. In: Abrol YP and Ahmad A (eds) Sulphur in Plants, pp 145–162, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  66. Granroth B (1970) Biosynthesis and decomposition of cysteine derivatives in onion, other Allium species. Ann Acad Sci Fenn A2 154: 1–71Google Scholar
  67. Graser G, Oldham NJ, Brown PD, Temp U and Gershenzon J (2001) The biosynthesis of benzoic acid glucosinolate esters in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry 57: 23–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Griffiths DW, Birch ANE and Hillman JR (1998) Antinutritional compounds in the Brassicaceae: analysis, biosynthesis, chemistry and dietary effects. J Hort Sci Biotechnol 73: 1–18Google Scholar
  69. Grill D, Tausz M and De Kok LJ (eds) (2001) Significance of Glutathione to Plant Adaptation to the Environment. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  70. Gullner G and Kömives T (2001) The role of glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in plant–pathogen interactions. In: Grill D, Tausz M and De Kok LJ (eds) Significance of Glutathione to Plant Adaptation to the Environment, pp 207–239, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  71. Halkier BA and Gershenzon J (2006) Biology and biochemistry of glucosinolates. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57: 303–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Haneklaus S, Bloem E and Schnug E (2003) The global sulphur cycle and its links to plant environment. In: Abrol YP and Ahmad A (eds) Sulphur in Plants, pp 1–28, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  73. Haneklaus S, Bloem E and Schnug E (2007a) Sulfur interactions in crop ecosystems. In: Hawkesford MJ and De Kok LJ (eds) Sulfur in Plants – an Ecological Perspective, pp 17–56, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  74. Haneklaus S, Bloem E, Schnug E, De Kok LJ and Stulen I (2007b) Sulfur. In: Barker AV and Pilbeam DJ (eds) Handbook of Plant Nutrition, pp 183–238, CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  75. Hanson AD and Gage DA (1996) 3-Dimethylsulfoniopropionate biosynthesis and the use by flowering plants. In: Kiene RP, Visscher PT, Keller MD and Kirst GO (eds) Biological and Environmental Chemistry of DMSP and Related Sulfonium Compounds, pp 75–86, Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Haq K and Ali M (2003) Biologically active sulphur compounds of plant origin. In: Abrol YP and Ahmad A (eds) Sulphur in Plants, pp 375–386, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  77. Harwood JL and Okanenko AA (2003) Sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG) – the sulpholipid of higher plants. In: Abrol YP and Ahmad A (eds) Sulphur in Plants, pp 189–219, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  78. Hawkesford MJ (2000) Plant responses to sulfur deficiency and the genetic manipulation of sulfate transporters to improve S-utilization efficiency. J Exp Bot 51: 131–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hawkesford MJ and Wray JL (2000) Molecular genetics of sulphate assimilation. Adv Bot Res 33: 159–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hawkesford MJ and De Kok LJ (2006) Managing sulphur metabolism in plants. Plant Cell Environ 29: 382–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hawkesford MJ, Buchner P, Hopkins L and Howarth JR (2003a) The plant sulfate transporter family: specialized functions, integration with whole plant nutrition. In: Davidian J-C, Grill D, De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Hawkesford MJ, Schnug E and Rennenberg H (eds) Sulfur Transport and Assimilation in Plants: Regulation, Interaction and Signalling, pp 1–10, Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  82. Hawkesford MJ, Buchner P, Hopkins L and Howarth JR (2003b) Sulphate uptake and transport. In: Abrol YP and Ahmad A (eds) Sulphur in Plants, pp 71–86, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  83. Heinz E (1993) Recent investigations on the biosynthesis of the plant sulfolipid. In: De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Rennenberg H, Brunold C and Rauser WE (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Regulatory Agricultural, Environmental Aspects, pp 163–178, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  84. Heiss S, Schäfer HJ, Haag-Kerwer A and Rausch T (1999) Cloning sulfur assimilation genes of Brassica juncea L.: cadmium differentially affects the expression of a putative low-affinity sulfate transporter and isoforms of ATP sulfurylase and APS reductase. Plant Mol Biol 39: 847–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hell R (2003) Metabolic regulation of cysteine synthesis and sulfur assimilation. The plant sulfate transporter family: specialized functions, integration with whole plant nutrition. In: Davidian J-C, Grill D, De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Hawkesford MJ, Schnug E and Rennenberg H (eds) Sulfur Transport and Assimilation in Plants: Regulation, Interaction and Signaling, pp 21–31, Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  86. Hell R and Kruse C (2007) Sulfur in biotic interactions of plants. In: Hawkesford MJ and De Kok LJ (eds) Sulfur in Plants – an Ecological Perspective, pp 197–224, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  87. Herschbach C (2003) Whole plant regulation of sulfur nutrition of deciduous trees – influences of the environment. Plant Biol 5: 233–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Herschbach C and Rennenberg H (1995) Long-distance transport of [35]S-sulphur in 3-year-old beech trees (Fagus sylvatica). Physiol Plant 95: 379–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Herschbach C and Rennenberg H (2001) Sulfur nutrition of deciduous trees. Naturwissenschaften 88: 25–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Herschbach C, van der Zalm E, Schneider A, Jouanin L, De Kok LJ and Rennenberg H (2000) Regulation of sulfur nutrition in wild-type and transgenic polpar over-expressing γ-glutamylysteine synthase in the cytosol as affected by atmospheric H2S. Plant Physiol 124: 461–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Janzen HH and Bettany JR (1987) The effect of temperature and water potential on sulfur oxidation in soils. Soil Sci 144: 81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jacquot J-P, Lancelin J-M and Meyer Y (1997) Tansley Review No.94. Thioredoxins: Structure and function in plant cells. New Phytol 136: 543–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Johnson DW (1984) Sulfur cycling in forests. Biogeochemistry 1: 29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Johnson DW and Mitchell MJ (1998) Responses of forest ecosystems to changing sulfur inputs. In: Maynard DG (ed), Sulfur in the Environment, pp 219–262, Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  95. Joshi MM and Hollis JP (1977) Interaction of Beggiatoa and rice plant: detoxification of hydrogen sulfide in the rice rhizosphere. Science 195: 179–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Joshi MM, Ibrahim IKA and Hollis JP (1973) Oxygen release from rice seedlings. Physiol Plant 29: 269–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Joshi MM, Ibrahim IKA and Hollis JP (1975) Hydrogen sulphide: effects on the physiology of rice plants and relation to straighthead disease. Phytopathology 65: 1165–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kopriva S and Koprivova A (2003) Sulphate assimilation: a pathway which likes to surprise. In: Abrol YP and Ahmad A (eds) Sulphur in Plants, pp 87–112, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  99. Kreuzwieser J, Herschbach C and Rennenberg H (1996) Sulphate uptake and xylem loading of non-mycorrhizal excised roots of young Fagus sylvatica trees. Plant Physiol Biochem 34: 409–416Google Scholar
  100. Kushad MM, Brown AF, Kurilich AC, Juvik JA, Klein BP, Wallig MA and Jeffery EH (1999) Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica oleracea. J Agric Food Chem 47: 1541–1548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lancaster JE and Collin HA (1981) Presence of alliinase in isolated vacuoles and of alkyl cysteine sulphoxides in the cytoplasm of bulbs of onion (Allium cepa). Plant Sci Lett 22: 169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lancaster JE and Shaw ML (1989) γ-Glutamyl peptides in the biosynthesis of S-alk(en) yl-L-cysteine sulphoxides (flavour precursors) in Allium. Phytochemistry 28: 455–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lancaster JE and Boland MJ (1990) Flavor biochemistry. In: Brewster JL and Rabinowitch HD (eds) Onions, Allied Crops. Volume III: Biochemistry Food Science, Minor Crops, pp 33–72, CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  104. Lancaster JE and Shaw ML (1991) Metabolism of γ-glutamyl peptides during development, storage and sprouting of onion bulbs. Phytochemistry 30: 2857–2859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lancaster JE, McCallion BJ and Shaw ML (1986) The dynamics of the flavour precursors the S-alk(en) yl-L-cysteine sulphoxides during leaf blade, scale development in the onion (Allium cepa). Physiol Plant 66: 293–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lancaster JE, Farrant JF and Shaw ML (2000) Effect of sulfur supply on alliinase, the flavour generating enzyme in onion. J Food Biochem 24: 353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lanzotti V (2006) The analysis of onion and garlic. J Chromatogr A 1112: 3–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lappartient AG, Vidmar JJ, Leustek T, Glass AD and Touraine B (1999) Inter-organ signaling in plants: regulation of ATP sulfurylase and sulfate transporter genes expression in roots mediated by phloem-translocated compound. Plant J 18: 89–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lawrence JR and Germida JJ (1991) Enumeration of sulfur oxidizing populations in Saskatchewan agricultural soils. Can J Soil Sci 71: 127–136Google Scholar
  110. Leach FA and Thornton I (1987) Trace elements in soils and pasture herbage on farms with bovine hypocupraemia. J Agric Sci 108: 591–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lee S and Leustek T (1999) The affect of cadmium on sulfate assimilation enzymes in Brassica juncea. Plant Sci 141: 201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Leustek T and Saito K (1999) Sulfate transport and assimilation in plants. Plant Physiol 120: 637–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. MacRitchie F and Gupta RB (1993) Functionality–composition relationships of wheat-flour as a result of variation in sulfur availability. Aust J Agric Res 44: 1767–1774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Malhi SS, Schoenau JJ and Grant CA (2005) A review of sulphur fertilizer management for optimum yield and quality of canola in the Canadian Great Plains. Can J Plant Sci 85: 297–307Google Scholar
  115. McCaskill MR and Blair GJ (1987) Particle size and soil texture effects on elemental sulfur oxidation. Agron J 79: 1079–1083Google Scholar
  116. McGrath SP and Zhao FJ (1996) Sulphur uptake, yield responses and the interactions between nitrogen and sulphur in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus). J Agric Sci 126: 53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. McGrath SP, Zhao FJ and Blake-Kalff MMA (2002) History and outlook for sulphur fertilisers in Europe. Proceedings No. 497. International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. Moss HJ, Wrigley CW, Macritchie F and Randall PJ (1981) Sulfur and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wheat. II. Influence on grain quality. Aust J Agric Res 32: 213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Moss HJ, Randall PJ and Wrigley CW (1983) Alteration to grain, flour and dough quality in three wheat types with variation in soil sulfur supply. J Cereal Sci 1: 255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mottram DS, Wedzicha BL and Dodson AT (2002) Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature 419: 448–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Murphy MD and O’Donnell T (1989) Sulphur deficiency in herbage in Ireland 2. Sulphur fertilisation and its effect on yield and quality of herbage. Irish J Agric Res 28: 79–90Google Scholar
  122. Murphy MD and Quirke WA (1997) The effect of sulphur/nitrogen/selenium interactions on herbage yield and quality. Irish J Agric Food Res 36: 31–38Google Scholar
  123. Murphy MD, Coulter BS, Noonan DG and Connolly J (2002) The effect of sulphur fertilisation on grass growth and animal performance. Irish J Agric Food Res 41: 1–15Google Scholar
  124. Muttucumaru N, Halford NG, Elmore JS, Dodson AT, Parry M, Shewry PR and Mottram DS (2006) The formation of high levels of acrylamide during the processing of flour derived from sulfate-deprived wheat. J Agric Food Chem 54: 8951–8955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Naito S, Hirai MY, Inaba-Higano K, Nambara E, Fujiwara T, Hayashi H, Komeda Y and Chino M (1995) Expression of soybean seed storage protein genes in transgenic plants and their response to sulfur nutritional conditions. J Plant Physiol 145: 614–619Google Scholar
  126. Noji M and Saito K (2003) Sulfur amino acids: biosynthesis of cysteine and methionine. In: Abrol YP and Ahmad A (eds) Sulphur in Plants, pp 135–144, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  127. Nocito FF, Pirovano L, Cocucci M and Sacchi GA (2002) Cadmium-induced sulfate uptake in maize roots. Plant Physiol 129: 1872–1879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Nocito FF, Lancilli C, Crema B, Fourcroy P, Davidian JC and Sacchi GA (2006) Heavy metal stress and sulfate uptake in maize roots. Plant Physiol 141: 1138–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Oenema O and Postma R (2003) Managing sulphur in agroecosystems. In: Abrol, YP and Ahmad A (eds) Sulphur in Plants, pp 45–70, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  130. Palmer GH (1989) Cereals in malting and brewing. In: Palmer GH (ed) Cereal Science and Technology, pp 61–242, Aberdeen University Press, AberdeenGoogle Scholar
  131. Pasricha NS and Fox RL (1993) Plant nutrient sulfur in the tropics and subtropics. Adv Agron 50: 209–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Pate JS (1965) Roots as organs of assimilation of sulfate. Science 149: 547–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Petersen BL, Chen S, Hansen CH, Olsen CE and Halkier BA (2002) Composition and content of glucosinolates in developing Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta 214: 562–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Randall PJ, Spencer K and Freney JR (1981) Sulfur and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wheat. 1. Concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen and the nitrogen to sulfur ratio in grain, in relation to the yield response. Aust J Agric Res 32: 203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Randle WM (2000) Increasing nitrogen concentration in hydroponic solutions affects onion flavor, bulb quality. J Am Soc Hort Sci 125: 254–259Google Scholar
  136. Randle WM and Lancaster JE (2002) Sulphur compounds in Alliums in relation to flavour quality. In: Rabinowitch HD and Currah L (eds) Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances, pp 329–356, CAB International WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  137. Randle WM, Bussard ML and Warnock DF (1993) Ontogeny and sulfur fertility affect leaf sulfur in short-day onions. J Am Soc Hort Sci 118: 762–765Google Scholar
  138. Randle WM, Lancaster JE, Shaw ML, Sutton KH, Hay RL and Bussard ML (1995) Quantifying onion flavor compounds responding to sulfur fertility. Sulfur increases levels of alk(en) yl cysteine sulfoxides, biosynthetic intermediates. J Am Soc Hort Sci 120: 1075–1081Google Scholar
  139. Rauser WE (1993) Metal-binding peptides in plants. In: De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Rennenberg H, Brunold C and Rauser WE (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Regulatory, Agricultural and Environmental Aspects, pp 239–251, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  140. Rauser WE (2000) The role of thiols in plants under metal stress. In: Brunold C, Rennenberg H, De Kok LJ, Stulen I and Davidian J-C (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Molecular, Biochemical and Physiological Aspects, pp 169–183, Paul Haupt, BernGoogle Scholar
  141. Rauser WE (2001) The role of glutathione in plant reaction and adaptation to excess metals. In: Grill D, Tausz M and De Kok LJ (eds) Significance of Glutathione to Plant Adaptation to the Environment, pp 123–154, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  142. Raven JA and Scrimgeour CM (1997) The influence of anoxia on plants of saline habitats with special reference to the sulfur cycle. Ann Bot 79: 79–86Google Scholar
  143. Reichelt M, Brown PD, Schneider B, Oldham NJ, Stauber E, Tokuhisa J, Kliebenstein DJ, Mitchell-Olds T and Gershenzon J (2002) Benzoic acid glucosinolate esters and other glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry 59: 663–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Rendig VV and Weir WC (1957) Evaluation of lambs feeding tests of alfalfa hay grown on low-sulphur soil. J Anim Sci 16: 451–462Google Scholar
  145. Rennenberg H (1984) The fate of excess sulfur in higher plant. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35: 121–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rennenberg H (1997) Molecular approaches to glutathione biosynthesis. In: Cram WJ, De Kok LJ, Brunold C and Rennenberg H (eds) Sulfur Metabolism in Higher Plants: Molecular, Ecophysiological and Nutritional Aspects, pp 59–70, Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  147. Rennenberg H (1999) The significance of ectomycorrhizal fungi for sulfur nutrition of trees. Plant Soil 215: 115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Rennenberg H and Herschbach C (1995) Sulfur nutrition of trees: a comparison of spruce (Picea abies L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Z Pflanzenernähr Bodenk 158: 513–517Google Scholar
  149. Rennenberg H, Schmitz K and Bergmann L (1979) Long-distance transport of sulfur in Nicotiana tabacum. Planta 147: 57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Riemenschneider A, Nikiforova V, Hoefgen R, De Kok LJ and Papenbrock J (2005) Impact of elevated H2S on metabolite levels, activity of enzymes and expression of genes involved in cysteine metabolism. Plant Physiol Biochem 43: 473–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Richards IR (1990) Sulphur as a crop nutrient in the United Kingdom. Sulphur Agric 14: 8–9Google Scholar
  152. Riley NG, Zhao FJ and McGrath SP (2000) Availability of different forms of sulphur fertilisers to wheat and oilseed rape. Plant Soil 222: 139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rosa E (1997) Glucosinolates from flower buds of Portuguese Brassica crops. Phytochemistry 44: 1415–1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rosa E (1999) Chemical composition. In: Gomez-Campo C (ed) Biology of Brassica coenospecies, pp 315–357, Elsevier Science, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Saito K (2003) Molecular and metabolic regulation of sulfur assimilation: initial approach by the post-genomics strategy. In: Davidian J-C, Grill D, De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Hawkesford MJ, Schnug E and Rennenberg H (eds) Sulfur Transport and Assimilation in Plants: Regulation, Interaction and Signaling, pp 11–20, Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  156. Scheurwater I, Koren M, Lambers H and Atkin OK (2002) The contribution of roots and shoots to whole plant nitrate reduction in fast- and slow-growing grass species. J Exp Bot 53: 1635–1642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Schnug E (1990) Glucosinolates – fundamental environmental and agricultural aspects. In: Rennenberg H, Brunold C, De Kok LJ and Stulen I (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Fundamental, Environmental and Agricultural Aspects, pp 97–106, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  158. Schnug E (1993) Physiological functions and environmental relevance of sulfur-containing secondary metabolites. In: De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Rennenberg H, Brunold C and Rauser W (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Regulatory, Agricultural and Environmental Aspects, pp 179–190, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  159. Schnug E (1997) Significance of sulphur for the quality of domesticated plants. In: Cram WJ, De Kok LJ, Brunold C and Rennenberg H (eds) Sulphur Metabolism in Higher Plants: Molecular, Ecophysiological and Nutritional Aspects, pp 109–130, Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  160. Schnug E (ed) (1998) Sulfur in Agroecosystems. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  161. Schnug E, Haneklaus S and Murphy D (1993) Impact of sulphur supply on the baking quality of wheat. Aspect Appl Biol 36: 337–345Google Scholar
  162. Schröder P (1998) Halogenated air pollutants. In: De Kok LJ and Stulen I (eds) Responses of Plant Metabolism to Air pollution, Global Change, pp 131–145, Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  163. Schröder P (1993) Plants are sources of atmospheric sulfur. In: De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Rennenberg H, Brunold C and Rauser W (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Regulatory, Agricultural en Environmental Aspects, pp. 252–270, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  164. Schröder P (2001) The role of glutathione S-transferases in plant reaction and adaptation to xenobiotics. In: Grill D, Tausz M and De Kok LJ (eds) Significance of Glutathione to Plant Adaptation to the Environment, pp 155–183, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  165. Shewry PR and Tatham AS (1997) Disulphide bonds in wheat gluten proteins. J Cereal Sci 25: 207–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Shewry PR, Franklin J, Parmar S, Smith SJ and Miflin BJ (1983) The effects of sulphur starvation on the amino acid and protein compositions of barley grain. J Cereal Sci 1: 21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Shortwell MA and Larkins BA (1989) The biochemistry and molecular biology of seed storage proteins. In: The Biochemistry of Plants, Vol 15, pp 297–345, Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  168. Spencer K and Freney JR (1980) Assessing the sulfur status of field-grown wheat by plant analysis. Agron J 72: 469–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Spencer D, Rerie WG, Randall PJ and Higgins TJV (1990) The regulation of pea seed storage protein genes by sulfur stress. Aust J Plant Physiol 17: 355–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Stadler RH, Blank I, Varga N, Robert F, Hau J, Guy PA, Robert MC and Riediker S (2002) Acrylamide from Mail-lard reaction products. Nature 419: 449–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Städler E (2000) Secondary sulfur compounds influencing herbivorous insects. In: Brunold C, Rennenberg H, De Kok LJ, Stulen I and Davidian J-C (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Molecular, Biochemical and Physiological Aspects, pp 187–202, Paul Haupt, BernGoogle Scholar
  172. Stefels J (2000) Physiological aspects of the production and conversion of DMSP in marine algae and higher plants. J Sea Res 43: 183–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Stefels J (2007) Sulfur in the marine environment. In: Hawkesford MJ and De Kok LJ (eds) Sulfur in Plants – an Ecological Perspective, pp 77–90, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  174. Stulen I and De Kok LJ (1993) Whole plant regulation of sulfur metabolism. In: De Kok LJ, Stulen I, Rennenberg H, Brunold C and Rauser WE (eds) Sulfur Nutrition and Sulfur Assimilation in Higher Plants: Regulatory, Agricultural and Environmental Aspects, pp 77–91, SPB Academic, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  175. Tabatabai MA (ed) (1986) Sulfur in Agriculture. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  176. Tausz M (2001) The role of glutathione in plant response and adaptation to natural stress. In: Grill D, Tausz M and De Kok LJ (eds) Significance of Glutathione to Plant Adaptation to the Environment, pp 101–122, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  177. Tausz M (2007) Sulfur in forest ecosystems. In: Hawkesford MJ and De Kok LJ (eds) Sulfur in Plants – an Ecological Perspective, pp 59–75, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  178. Tausz M, Gullner G, Kömives T and Grill D (2003a) The role of thiols in plant adaptation to environmental stress. In: Abrol YP and Ahmad A (eds) Sulphur in Plants, pp 221–244, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  179. Tausz M, Weidner W, Wonisch A, De Kok LJ and Grill D (2003b) Uptake and distribution of 35S-sulfate in needles and roots of spruce seedlings as affected by exposure to SO2 and H2S. Environ Exp Bot 50:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Trudinger PA (1986) Chemistry of the sulfur cycle. In: Tabatabai MA (ed) Sulfur in Agriculture, pp 295–323, American Society of Agronomy, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  181. Van Diggelen J, Rozema J, and Broekman R (1987) Growth and mineral relations of salt-marsh species on nutrient solutions containing various sodium sulphide concentrations. In: Huiskes AHL, Blom CWPM and Rozema J (eds) Vegetation between Land and Sea, pp 260–268, Junk Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  182. van der Zalm E, Schneider A and Rennenberg H (2005) Regulation of sulfate uptake and xylem loading of poplar roots (Populus tremula x P. alba). Trees 19: 204–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Verkleij JAC, Sneller FEC and Schat H (2003) Metallothioneins and phytochelatins: ecophysiological aspects. In: Abrol YP and Ahmad A (eds) Sulphur in Plants, pp 163–176, Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  184. Watkinson JH and Blair GJ (1993) Modeling the oxidation of elemental sulfur in soils. Fert Res 35: 115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Watkinson JH and Lee A (1994) Kinetics of field oxidation of elemental sulfur in New Zealand pastoral soils and the effects of soil temperature and moisture. Fert Res 37: 59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Westerman S, De Kok LJ and Stulen I (2000) Interaction between metabolism of atmospheric H2S in the shoot and sulfate uptake by the roots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.). Physiol Plant 109: 443–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Westerman S, Stulen I, Suter M, Brunold C and De Kok LJ (2001) Atmospheric H2S as sulfur source for Brassica oleracea: consequences for the activity of the enzymes of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. Plant Physiol Biochem 39: 425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. White PJ, Broadley MR, Bowen HC and Johnson SE (2007) Selenium and its relationship with sulfur. In: Hawkesford MJ and De Kok LJ (eds) Sulfur in Plants – an Ecological Perspective, pp 225–252, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  189. Wieser H, Gutser R and von Tucher S (2004) Influence of sulphur fertilisation on quantities and proportions of gluten protein types in wheat flour. J Cereal Sci 40: 239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Wittstock U and Halkier BA (2002) Glucosinolate research in the Arabidopsis era. Trends Plant Sci 7: 263–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Wrigley CW, Ducros DL, Fullington JG and Kasarda DD (1984) Changes in polypeptide composition and grain quality due to sulfur deficiency in wheat. J Cereal Sci 2: 15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Onda Y, Ashikari T, Tanaka Y, Kusumi T and Hase T (2000) Analysis of reductant supply systems for ferredoxin-dependent sulfite reductase in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organs of maize. Plant Physiol 122: 887–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho CG and Posner GH (1992) A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 89: 2399–2403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Zhao FJ, Evans EJ, Bilsborrow PE and Syers JK (1993) Influence of sulphur and nitrogen on seed yield and quality of low glucosinolate oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). J Sci Food Agric 63: 29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Zhao FJ, Hawkesford MJ, Warrilow AGS, McGrath SP and Clarkson DT (1996) Responses of two wheat varieties to sulphur addition and diagnosis of sulphur deficiency. Plant Soil 181: 317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Zhao FJ, Hawkesford MJ and McGrath SP (1999a) Sulphur assimilation and effects on yield and quality of wheat. J Cereal Sci 30: 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Zhao FJ, Salmon SE, Withers PJA, Evans EJ, Monaghan JM, Shewry PR and McGrath SP (1999b) Responses of breadmaking quality to sulphur in three wheat varieties. J Sci Food Agric 79: 1865–1874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Zhao FJ, Salmon SE, Withers PJA, Monaghan JM, Evans EJ, Shewry PR and McGrath SP (1999c) Variation in the breadmaking quality and rheological properties of wheat in relation to sulphur nutrition under field conditions. J Cereal Sci 30: 19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Zhao FJ, McGrath SP, Blake-Kalff MMA, Link A and Tucker M (2002) Crop responses to sulphur fertilisation in Europe. Proceedings No. 504. International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  200. Zhao FJ, Fortune S, Barbosa VL, McGrath SP, Stobart R, Bilsborrow PE, Booth EJ, Brown A and Robson P (2006) Effects of sulphur on yield and malting quality of barley. J Cereal Sci 43: 369–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fang-jie Zhao
    • 1
  • Michael Tausz
    • 2
  • Luit J. De Kok
    • 3
  1. 1.Agriculture and Environment DivisionRothamsted ResearchUK
  2. 2.School of Forest and Ecosystem ScienceThe University of MelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Plant PhysiologyUniversity of GroningenNetherlands

Personalised recommendations