Cellular Nanotubes: Membrane Channels for Intercellular Communication
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Cells of living organism communicate in many different ways with their neighbor cells. This is accomplished by, for example, the secretion of signaling molecules or the formation of proteinaceous pores, referred to as gap junctions, between physically attached cells. In addition to these long-known communication routes, a novel mechanism was discovered recently based on de novo formation of membrane nanotubes, which facilitate the delivery of biological molecules and organelles between cells. Interestingly, chemists have been developing artificial carbon-based nanostructures with a similar architecture for communication with cells and delivery of clinically interesting drugs. Along with every new developed technology involving the use of foreign compounds in biomedical applications, concerns emerge on the biocompatibility and toxicity at the cellular level. This is particularly true for nano-sized materials, whose effects are yet to be thoroughly determined in vivo. Biocompatibilization of synthetic compounds may be done more efficiently if naturally occurring structures are taken as models.
KeywordsTunneling nanotube TNT cellular communication intercellular transport
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