Welding of metals is applied on a very wide scale, especially for building up structures by welding of steel plates and girders of different cross sections (I-beams, U-beams, angle beams). Welding provides many structural design options which cannot be simply realized with other production techniques. Major applications are found in bridges, cranes, ships, offshore structures, pressure vessels, buildings and various types of spatial frames.

Welding as a production technique is associated with various problems, which are characteristic for welding only. As a result, the subject “welding” became practically a discipline on its own as illustrated by the existence of welding institutes and organizations, standards and design codes, journals, and an extensive literature. Within the welding discipline, much attention has been paid to problems related to different welding techniques known under general names as: arc welding, gas welding, electron beam welding, laser welding, resistance spot welding, friction welding, and more recently stir friction welding. Welded joint designs and notch effects of welds are typical for welded structures. Welded joints are also known for a number of characteristic weld defects. These defects have created new issues for non-destructive inspections (NDI), which have stimulated developments of X-ray and ultrasonic equipment. Moreover, fatigue properties of welded joints can exhibit considerable scatter because of a variety of imperfections of these joints. As a consequence, fatigue of welded joints has always been a matter of concern, but good welding practice can be specified for fatigue critical structures including non-destructive inspections of all welds.s


Fatigue Crack Fatigue Life Fatigue Strength Fatigue Crack Growth Stir Friction Welding 
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