Ultrastructural Analyses on the Conotheca of the Genus Belemnotheutis (Belemnitida: Coleoidea)

  • Dirk Fuchs
  • Helmut Keupp
  • Vasilij Mitta
  • Theo Engeser

The internal skeleton of extinct belemnoids consists of the phragmocone (Fig. 14.1) and the rostrum. The rostrum covers the posterior part of the phragmocone and acts as a counterweight that brings the animal into a horizontal swimming position. Structural elements of the phragmocone are the septal-siphonal complex and the conotheca (phragmocone wall). If the proostracum (Fig. 14.1), the anterior dorsal projection of the phragmocone, is also part of the phragmocone or an independent development, is currently under discussion. The proostracum is usually considered to be the dorsal remnant of the body chamber inherited from ectocochlean ancestors (Crick, 1896; Naef, 1922; Jeletzky, 1966; Doyle and Shakides, 2004). Rostral layers (primordial rostrum + rostrum) and the mural parts of the septa do not belong to the conotheca proper.

Keywords

Clay Calcite Cretaceous Eter Pyrite 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bandel, K. 1985. Composition and ontogeny of Dictyoconites (Aulacocerida, Cephalopoda). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 59: 223–244.Google Scholar
  2. Bandel, K. 1989. Cephalopod shell structure and general mechanisms of shell formation. InCarter, J. G. (editor), Skeleton Biomineralization: Patterns, Processes and Evolutionary Trends, pp. 97–115. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  3. Bandel, K., T. Engeser, and J. Reitner. 1984. Die Embryonalentwicklung von Hibolithes (Belemnitida, Cephalopoda). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 167: 275–303.Google Scholar
  4. Bandel, K., and C. Kulicki. 1988. Belemnoteuthis polonica: a belemnite with an aragonitic rostrum. In J. Wiedmann, and J. Kullmann (editors), Cephalopods–Present and Past, pp. 303–316. Stuttgart: Schweitzerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.Google Scholar
  5. Barskov, I. S. 1972. Microstructure of the skeletal layers of belemnites compared with the shell layers of other molluscs. Paleontological Journal (Translation of the Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal) 4: 492–500.Google Scholar
  6. Christensen, E. 1925. Neue Beiträge zum Bau der Belemniten. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 51: 118–158.Google Scholar
  7. Crick, G. C. 1896. On the Proöstracum of a belemnite from the upper Lias of Alderton, Gloucestershire. Proceedings of the Malacological Society 2: 117–119.Google Scholar
  8. Cuif, J.-P., and Y. Dauphin. 1979. Mineralogie et microstructures dhAulacocerida (Mollusca-Coleoidea) du Trias de Turquie. Biomineralisation 10: 70–79.Google Scholar
  9. Dauphin, Y. 1983. Microstructure du phragmocone du genre triassique Aulacoceras (Cephalopoda-Coleoida)–remarques sur les homologies des tissues coquilliers chez les Cephalopodes. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 165: 418–437.Google Scholar
  10. Doguzhaeva, L. A. 1996. Two early Cretaceous spirulid coleoids of the northwestern Caucasus: their shell ultrastructure and evolutionary implications. Paleontology 39(3): 681–707.Google Scholar
  11. Doguzhaeva, L. A., R. H. Mapes, and H. Mutvei. 2003a. The shell and inc sac morphology and ultrastructure of the Late Pennsylvanian cephalopod Donovaniconus and its phylogenetic significance. Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen 3: 61–78.Google Scholar
  12. Doguzhaeva, L. A., and H. Mutvei. 2003. Gladius composition and ultrastructure in extinct squid-like coleoids Loligosepia, Trachyteuthis and Teudopsis. Revue de Paleobiologie 22: 877–894.Google Scholar
  13. Doguzhaeva, L. A., H. Mutvei, and D. T. Donovan. 2002. Pro-ostracum, muscular mantle and conotheca in the Middle Jurassic belemnite Megateuthis. Abhandlungen der geologischen Bundesanstalt 57: 321–339.Google Scholar
  14. Doguzhaeva, L. A., H. Mutvei, G. K. Kabanov, and D. T. Donovan. 1999. Conch ultrastructure and septal neck ontogeny of the belemnid Conobelus (Duvaliidae) from the Valangian of the Crimea (Black Sea). In F. Oloriz, and F. J. Rodriguez-Tovar (editors), Advancing Research on Living and Fossil Cephalopods, pp. 47–57. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  15. Doguzhaeva, L. A., H. Mutvei, and W. Weitschat. 2003b. The pro-ostracum and primordial rostrum at early ontogeny of Jurassic belemnites from north-western Germany. Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen 3: 79–89.Google Scholar
  16. Donovan, D. T., and M. D. Crane. 1992. The type material of the Jurassic cephalopod Belemnoteuthis. Palaeontology 35(2): 273–296.Google Scholar
  17. Doyle, P. 1986. Naefia (Coleoidea) from late Cretaceous of southern India. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History 40(4): 133–139.Google Scholar
  18. Doyle, P., and E. V. Shakides. 2004. The jurassic belemnite suborder Belemnotheutina. Palaeontology 47: 983–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fuchs, D. 2006. Fossil erhaltungsfähige Merkmalskomplexe der Coleoidea (Cephalopoda) und ihre phylogenetische Bedeutung. Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen 8: 1–121.Google Scholar
  20. Hewitt, R. A., and G. Pinckney. 1982. On the occurrence and the microstructure of the phragmocone and pro-ostracum of the belemnite Genus Acroteuthis Stolley. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A 179: 142–147.Google Scholar
  21. Jeletzky, J. A. 1966. Comparative morphology, phylogeny and classification of fossil Coleoidea. Paleontological Contributions, University of Kansas, Mollusca 7:1–162.Google Scholar
  22. Keupp, H., and V. V. Mitta. 2004. Septenbildung bei Quenstedtoceras (Ammonoidea) von Saratov (Russland) unter anomalen Kammerdruckbedingungen. Mitteilungen des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Instituts, Universität Hamburg 88: 51–62.Google Scholar
  23. Makowski, H. 1952. La faune callovienne de Lukow en Pologne, Palaeontologia Polonica 4: 1–64.Google Scholar
  24. Müller-Stoll, H. 1936. Beitraege zur Anatomie der Belemnoidea, Nova Acta Leopoldina. New Series 4: 159–226.Google Scholar
  25. Mutvei, H. 1964. Remarks on the anatomy of recent and fossil Cephalopoda–with description of the minute shell structure of belemnoids. Stockholm Contributions to Geology 11: 79–102.Google Scholar
  26. Naef, A. 1922. Die fossilen Tintenfische–Eine paläozoologische Monographie. Jena: Fischerverlag.Google Scholar
  27. Pearce, J. C. 1847. On the fossil Cephalopoda from the Oxford Clay constituting the genus Belemnoteuthis, Pearce. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 3: 592–594.Google Scholar
  28. N. H. Landman et al. (eds.), Cephalopods Present and Past: New Insights and Fresh Perspectives, 299–314.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dirk Fuchs
    • 1
  • Helmut Keupp
    • 1
  • Vasilij Mitta
    • 2
  • Theo Engeser
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften Fachrichtung PaläontologieFreie Universität BerlinGermany
  2. 2.Russian Academy of SciencesPaleontological InstituteRussia

Personalised recommendations