Genetic Alternations in Common Cancers

Each of the roughly 100 types of human cancer is caused by the activation of proto-oncogenes and the loss of tumor suppressor genes. Although cancer genomes are complex, some clear mutational patterns are apparent. Several cancer genes are observed very frequently in some types of cancer, but rarely found in other types. Other cancer genes are much more widespread. Recent analysis of individual cancer genomes has shown that, in addition to the well-known cancer genes described in the preceding chapters, there are many mutations that arise, via clonal selection, at very low frequency during tumorigenesis. These observations imply that there are many potential combinations of cancer genes that can cooperatively allow the growth of neoplasia.


Thyroid Cancer Endometrial Cancer Human Papilloma Virus Hodgkin Lymphoma Stomach Cancer 
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