Genetic Alternations in Common Cancers

Each of the roughly 100 types of human cancer is caused by the activation of proto-oncogenes and the loss of tumor suppressor genes. Although cancer genomes are complex, some clear mutational patterns are apparent. Several cancer genes are observed very frequently in some types of cancer, but rarely found in other types. Other cancer genes are much more widespread. Recent analysis of individual cancer genomes has shown that, in addition to the well-known cancer genes described in the preceding chapters, there are many mutations that arise, via clonal selection, at very low frequency during tumorigenesis. These observations imply that there are many potential combinations of cancer genes that can cooperatively allow the growth of neoplasia.

Keywords

Hepatitis Codon Adenocarcinoma Adenoma Pancreatitis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bell, D. A. Origins and molecular pathology of ovarian cancer. Mod. Pathol. 18 (Suppl 2), S19–S32 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. de Snoo, F. A. & Hayward, N. K. Cutaneous melanoma susceptibility and progression genes. Cancer Lett. 230, 153–186 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ellenson, L. H. & Wu, T. C. Focus on endometrial and cervical cancer. Cancer Cell 5, 533–538 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. El-Rifai, W. & Powell, S. M. Molecular biology of gastric cancer. Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 12, 128–140 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Farazi, P. A. & DePinho, R. A. Hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis: From genes to environment. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6, 674–687 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gallia, G. L. et al. PIK3CA gene mutations in pediatric and adult glioblastoma multiforme. Mol. Cancer Res. 4, 709–714 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haluska, F. G. et al. Genetic alterations in signaling pathways in melanoma. Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 2301s–2307s (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hovey, R. M. et al. Genetic alterations in primary bladder cancers and their metastases. Cancer Res. 58, 3555–3560 (1998).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hussain, S. P., Schwank, J., Staib, F., Wang, X. W. & Harris, C. C. TP53 mutations and hepatocellular carcinoma: Insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of liver cancer. Oncogene 26, 2166–2176 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kangelaris, K. N. & Gruber, S. B. Clinical implications of founder and recurrent CDH1 mutations in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. JAMA 297, 2410–2411 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kondo, T., Ezzat, S. & Asa, S. L. Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6, 292–306 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Linehan, W. M., Walther, M. M. & Zbar, B. The genetic basis of cancer of the kidney. J. Urol. 170, 2163–2172 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Maitra, A., Kern, S. E. & Hruban, R. H. Molecular pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 20, 211–226 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moasser, M. M. The oncogene HER2: Its signaling and transforming functions and its role in human cancer pathogenesis. Oncogene (2007).Google Scholar
  15. Munger, K. et al. Mechanisms of human papillomavirus-induced oncogenesis. J. Virol. 78, 11451–11460 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nakayama, K. et al. Amplicon profiles in ovarian serous carcinomas. Int. J. Cancer 120, 2613–2617 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nathanson, K. L., Wooster, R. & Weber, B. L. Breast cancer genetics: What we know and what we need. Nat. Med. 7, 552–556 (2001).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nylander, K., Dabelsteen, E. & Hall, P. A. The p53 molecule and its prognostic role in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. J. Oral Pathol. Med. 29, 413–425 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Oda, K., Stokoe, D., Taketani, Y. & McCormick, F. High frequency of coexistent mutations of PIK3CA and PTEN genes in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Res. 65, 10669–10673 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ohgaki, H. & Kleihues, P. Genetic pathways to primary and secondary glioblastoma. Am. J. Pathol. 170, 1445–1453 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sagaert, X., De Wolf-Peeters, C., Noels, H. & Baens, M. The pathogenesis of MALT lymphomas: Where do we stand? Leukemia 21, 389–396 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Warnakulasuriya, K. A. & Ralhan, R. Clinical, pathological, cellular and molecular lesions caused by oral smokeless tobacco–a review. J. Oral Pathol. Med. 36, 63–77 (2007).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2008

Personalised recommendations