Systematics and Biology of Encarsia

  • John M. Heraty
  • Andrew Polaszek
  • Michael E. Schauff
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 4)

The genus Encarsia includes 343 described species and numerous undescribed species. Immatures are parasitoids of various whiteflies, armored scales, aphids, Lepidoptera or even the opposite sex of the same species. Several species are known to attack Bemisia, but so far, none have proved effective in the control of the pest species in this genus. The taxonomy and classification of Encarsia species is undergoing rapid changes using both morphological and molecular techniques. Wolbachia and newly discovered bacteria are associated with sex ratio distortion in species of Encarsia. Whiteflies appear to be the basal host associated with members of this genus, with only a few species potentially host specific for Bemisia whiteflies.


Biological Control Species Group Biological Control Agent Fore Wing Entomological Society 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Heraty
    • 1
  • Andrew Polaszek
    • 2
  • Michael E. Schauff
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  2. 2.Department of EntomologyNatural History MuseumUK
  3. 3.Plant Sciences InstituteUSDA-ARSBeltsvilleUSA

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