Foreign Exploration for Insect Natural Enemies of Bemisia for Use in Biological Control in the USA: A Successful Program

  • Alan A. Kirk
  • Lawrence A. Lacey
  • John Goolsby
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 4)

European Biological Control Laboratory scientists (USDA-ARS) and collaborators sent 130 shipments of Bemisia species and natural enemies from 28 countries to the Mission Biological Control Laboratory (MBCL) in Mission Texas. More than 235 collections resulted in 13 species of parasitoids and several predators for evaluation in the USA. Climate modeling software was used to focus on collecting areas with climates similar to Arizona, California and Texas. Field crops, glasshouse crops and weeds were searched and many host plant species yielded parasitized Bemisia. Field parasitism by Bemisia parasitoids was shown to be 39–44% in Spain and 0–67% in Thailand. Taxonomists identified Bemisia biotypes, parasitoids and predators; geneticists characterized Bemisia and natural enemy species. This information was used for evaluation, release, and experimentation.


Biological Control Natural Enemy United Arab Emirate Bemisia Tabaci Cole Crop 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bellows, T.S., Jr., T.M. Perring, R.J. Gill, and D.H. Headrick. 1994. Description of a species of Bemisia (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 87: 195–206.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, J.K., H.S. Costa, and F. Laemmlen. 1991. First incidence of whitefly-associated squash silverleaf (SSL) of Cucurbita, and of white streaking (WSt) disorder of cole crops in Arizona and California. Plant Diseases. 76: 426.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, J.K., D.R. Frohlich, and R.C. Rosell. 1995a. The sweetpotato or silverleaf whiteflies: biotypes of Bemisia tabaci or a species complex? Annual Review of Entomology 40: 511–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, J.K., S.A. Coats, I.D. Bedford, P.G. Markham, J. Bird, and D.R. Frohlich. 1995b. Characterization and distribution of esterase electromorphs in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Biochemical Genetics 33: 205–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, J.K., T.M. Perring, A.D. Cooper, I.D. Bedford, and P.G. Markham. 2000. Genetic analysis of Bemisia (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) populations by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Biochemical Genetics 38: 13–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cock, M.J.W. ed., 1986. Bemisia tabaci, A Literature Survey on the Cotton Whitefly with an Annotated Bibliography. CAB International Institute of Biological Control, Ascot, UK.Google Scholar
  7. Cock, M.J.W. ed., 1993. Bemisia tabaci, an update 1986–1992 on the Cotton Whitefly with an Annotated Bibliography. CAB International Institute of Biological Control, Ascot, UK.Google Scholar
  8. Elsey, K.D. and M.W. Farnham. 1994. Response of Brassica oleracea L. to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). HortScience 29: 814–817.Google Scholar
  9. Faust, R.M. 1992. Conference report and 5-year national research and action plan for development of management and control methodology for the sweetpotato whitefly. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-107. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  10. Faust, R.M. and J.R. Coppedge. 1995. Foreword. In T.J. Henneberry, N.C. Toscano, R.M. Faust, and J.R. Coppedge, eds., 1995 Supplement to the 5-year National Research and Action Plan-Third Annual Review, San Diego, CA, January 28–31, 1995. USDA, ARS, 1995–2.Google Scholar
  11. Frohlich, D., I. Torres-Jerez, I.D. Bedford, P.G. Markham, and J.K. Brown. 1999. A phylogeographic analysis of the Bemisia tabaci species complex based on mitochondrial DNA markers. Molecular Ecology 8: 1593–1602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goolsby, J.A., M.A. Ciomperlik, B.C. Legaspi, Jr., J.C. Legaspi and L.E. Wendel, 1998. Laboratory and field evaluation of exotic parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Biotype ‘B’) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Biological Control 12: 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goolsby, J.A., P. De Barro, A.A. Kirk, R. Sutherst, M. Ciomperlik, P. Ellsworth, J. Gould, K. Hoelmer, S. Naranjo, M. Rose, W. Roltsch, R. Ruiz, C. Pickett, and D. Vacek. 2005. Post-release evaluation of the biological control of Bemisia tabaci biotype “B” in the USA and the development of predictive tools to guide introductions for other countries. Biological Control 32: 70–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones, W.A., D.F. Wolfenbarger, and A.A. Kirk. 1996. Response of adult parasitoids of the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hom: Aleyrodidae) to leaf residues of selected cotton insecticides. Entomophaga 40: 1–9.Google Scholar
  15. Kirk, A.A. and L.A. Lacey. 1996. A systematic approach to foreign exploration for natural enemies of Bemisia. In D. Gerling and R. Mayer, eds., Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage, Control and Management, pp. 531–533. Intercept, Andover, UK.Google Scholar
  16. Kirk, A.A., L.A. Lacey, N. Roditakis, and J.K. Brown. 1993. The status of Bemisia tabaci (Hom: Aleyrodidae), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hom: Aleyrodidae) and their natural enemies in Crete. Entomophaga 31: 183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kirk, A.A., L.A Lacey, J.K. Brown, M.A. Ciomperlik, J.A. Goolsby, D.C. Vacek, L.E. Wendel, and B. Napompeth. 2000. Variation in the Bemisia tabaci s. l. species complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies leading to successful biological control of Bemisia biotype B in the USA. Bulletin of Entomological Research 90: 317–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lacey, L.A., A.A. Kirk, and R.D. Hennessey. 1993. Foreign exploration for natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci and implementation in integrated control programs in the United States. Proceedings Third International Conference on Pests in Agriculture, Montpellier, France, 7–9 December 1993, pp. 351–360. Association Nationale de Protection des Plantes, Paris.Google Scholar
  19. Lacey, L.A., L. Millar, A.A. Kirk, and T.M. Perring. 1999. Effect of storage temperature and duration on survival of eggs and nymphs of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aphelinidae) and pupae of the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 92: 430–434.Google Scholar
  20. Legaspi, J.C., B.C. Legaspi Jr., R.I. Carruthers, J. Goolsby, W.A. Jones, A.A. Kirk, C. Moomaw, T.J. Poprawski, R.A. Ruiz, N.S. and D. Vacek. 1996. Foreign exploration for natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci from southeast Asia. Subtropical Plant Science 48: 43–48.Google Scholar
  21. Lopez-Avila, A. 1986. Taxonomy and biology. In M.J.W. Cock, ed., Bemisia tabaci, A Literature Survey on the Cotton Whitefly with an Annotated Bibliography, pp. 3–11. CAB International Institute of Biological Control, Ascot, UK.Google Scholar
  22. Martin, J.H. 1987. An identification guide to common whitefly pest species of the world (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). Tropical Pest Management 33: 298–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mound, L.A. and S.H. Halsey. 1978. Whitefly of the World: a Systematic Catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with Host Plant and Natural Enemy Data. British Museum (Natural History). Wiley, Chichester, London.Google Scholar
  24. Nguyen, R. 1996. Importation and field release of parasites against silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Bellows and Perring) in Florida from 1990–1995. In Henneberry, T.J., N.C. Toscano, R.M. Faust, and J.R. Coppedge, eds., Silverleaf Whitefly: 1996 Supplement to the Five Year National Research and Action Plan–4th Annual Review, February 4–6, 1996, San Antonio, Texas. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-1996–01, p. 134.Google Scholar
  25. Nguyen, R. and Bennett, F.D. 1995. Importation and field release of parasites against silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Bellows and Perring) in Florida from 1990–1994. Proc. Florida State Horticultural Society 108: 43–47.Google Scholar
  26. Noyes, J.S. 1982. Collecting and preserving chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera:Chalcidoidea). Journal of Natural History 16: 315–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Perring, T.M., A. Cooper, D.J. Kazmer, C. Shields, and J. Shields. 1991. New strain of sweetpotato whitefly invades California vegetables. California Agriculture 45 (Nov.-Dec.): 10–12.Google Scholar
  28. Schuster, D.J., T.F. Mueller, J.B. Kring, and J.F. Price. 1990. Relationship of the sweetpotato whitefly to a new fruit disorder of tomato in Florida. HortScience 25: 1618–1620.Google Scholar
  29. Skarratt, D.B., R.W. Sutherst, and G.F. Maywald. 1995. CLIMEX for windows Version 1, CSIRO, CRC, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  30. Sutherst, R.W., G.F. Maywald, T.Yonow, and P.M. Stevens. 1999. CLIMEX. Predicting the effects of climate on plants and animals. CD-ROM and User guide. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.Google Scholar
  31. Tothill, J.D., T.H.C. Taylor, and R.W. Pazine. 1930. The coconut moth in Fiji: a history of its control by parasites. Imperial Bureau of Entomology, London.Google Scholar
  32. Zolnerowich, G. and M. Rose. 1998. Eretmocerus Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) imported and released in the United States for control of Bemisia (tabaci complex) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 100: 311–323.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan A. Kirk
    • 1
  • Lawrence A. Lacey
    • 2
  • John Goolsby
    • 3
  1. 1.European Biological Control LaboratoryUSDA-ARSFrance
  2. 2.Yakima Agricultural Research CenterUSDA-ARSWapatoUSA
  3. 3.Beneficial Insects Research UnitUSDA-ARSWeslacoUSA

Personalised recommendations