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Indigenous Parasitoids of Bemisia in the USA and Potential for Non-Target Impacts of Exotic Parasitoid Introductions

  • Kim Hoelmer
  • David J. Schuster
  • Matthew A. Ciomperlik
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 4)

Surveys to document the presence and species composition of native natural enemies were conducted prior to the introduction of non-indigenous agents against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B, in the USA. Agricultural officials surveyed for the presence and natural enemies of B. tabaci in eight southeastern states, and researchers in Florida, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Mississippi, Texas, and California conducted separate surveys of regional crops and other whitefly infested plants. General survey procedures in each area were similar and involved the periodic collection of Bemisia-infested foliage from a wide range of crops, weeds, ornamentals, and other native plants. In California deserts, surveys also included other whitefly species on host plants sharing habitats with host plants of B. tabaci. The greatest diversity of native parasitoid species attacking B. tabaci was reported in Florida, due perhaps to the diversity of invasive whitefly species established in Florida. Only two or three parasitoid species were responsible for the majority of parasitism of B. tabaci within any given region of the USA. The predominant species attacking B. tabaci prior to the introduction of new Palearctic parasitoid species were Eretmocerus tejanus (in Texas), Eretmocerus eremicus (Arizona and California), Eretmocerus sp. (undescribed, southeast USA), Encarsia pergandiella/Enc. tabacivora (southeastern USA and Texas), and Encarsia luteola (southwestern USA). Trialeurodes abutiloneus was the only other whitefly species regularly found on the same herbaceous, annual host plants utilized by B. tabaci, and it is a natural reservoir for many of the indigenous parasitoids that attack B. tabaci in much of the southern USA. Parasitoids reared from other whitefly species found on native desert vegetation were not the same species as those occurring on B. tabaci and T. abutiloneus. At the time of latest surveys in 2001 (California) and 2003 (Texas), the exotic species that were introduced have remained limited to their intended target, B. tabaci.

Keywords

Parasitoid Species Desert Plant Whitefly Population Whitefly Species Whitefly Nymph 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kim Hoelmer
    • 1
  • David J. Schuster
    • 2
  • Matthew A. Ciomperlik
    • 3
  1. 1.Beneficial Insect Introduction Research UnitUSDA-ARSNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Food & Agricultural SciencesUniversity of FloridaWimaumaUSA
  3. 3.Center for Plant Health Science and Technology LaboratoryUSDA-APHIS-PPQEdinburgUSA

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