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Multivariate Analysis of Bemisia tabaci Biotype B and Associated Parasitoid Populations within the Imperial Valley Agricultural System

  • Earl Andress
  • Mark Quinn
  • Juli Gould
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 4)

Multivariate analysis techniques were used to separate the effects of various agroecosystem variables on populations of Bemisia tabaci and its native and exotic parasitoids in the Imperial Valley of California. The effects detected were significant and complex. Parasitoid numbers increased with higher B. tabaci density, but positive density-dependence was not observed. Parasitism consistently accounted for a significant portion of B. tabaci mortality, and exotics accounted for a large portion of the mortality clearly attributable to parasitoids especially in alfalfa and broccoli. Percentage parasitism was greatest at sites associated with high regional coverage of alfalfa, and alfalfa seems to be an excellent reservoir for parasitoids. Regional coverage of cantaloupe also seems to enhance biocontrol of B. tabaci at sample sites, including biocontrol from exotics. Populations of parasitoids at sample sites were enhanced by regional coverage of cotton. Populations of parasitoids were lower at sites exposed to relatively high regional insecticide loads, but not necessarily local pesticide loads. This study was initiated only 2 years after the first releases of Eret. sp. nr. emiratus (ex. Ethiopia), the species that eventually became the most numerous exotic parasitoid. It is likely that exotic parasitoid populations will continue to adapt for some time to come, and that their impact has not yet reached its full potential. Once sufficient time has elapsed for populations of introduced species of parasitoids to reach their full potential, multivariate studies of this type can be used determine the impact of natural enemy populations on B. tabaci populations after accounting for the effects of surrounding crops and insecticide use.

Keywords

Natural Enemy Regional Coverage Insecticide Application Classical Biological Control Percentage Parasitism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Earl Andress
    • 1
  • Mark Quinn
    • 2
  • Juli Gould
    • 3
  1. 1.USDA-APHIS Pink Bollworm Rearing FacilityPhoenixUSA
  2. 2.Department of Crop and Soil SciencesWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  3. 3.Center for Plant Health Science and Technology LaboratoryUSDA-APHIS-PPQOtisUSA

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