Partially Ionized Plasma
The Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere consist of a number of regions filled with an ionized gas immersed into the Earth's magnetic field. Since one of the important motivations of this book is understanding the low frequency electrodynamics of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, it is useful to begin with the basic equations of the partially ionized plasma with the magnetic field. Fundamental equations for the system of neutral and charged particles moving in the internal and external electromagnetic fields are well known. These are the Maxwell's equations and kinetic equations. It is impossible to give here even the basis for such a wide subject as plasma physics, and we restrict ourselves to a short list of basic equations and definitions in this branch of physics. Detailed considerations can be found in numerous books on plasma physics (e.g. , , ) and on the electromagnetic waves in plasmas (e.g. , ). More detailed consideration will be given for the tensors of conductivity and dielectric permeability in the multi-fluid hydromagnetic approximation.
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