Modification of Microclimate and Associated Food Crop Productivity in an Alley-cropping System in Northern Sudan

  • H. Shapo
  • H. Adam
Part of the Advances in Agroforestry book series (ADAG, volume 4)

The northern region of Sudan consists of desert and semidesert prone to low rainfall, poor agricultural productivity and desertification, resulting in a continual decline in the area of cultivated land. The prevailing harsh conditions in the region (high solar radiation and temperature and low relative humidity), particularly during the summer season, prevent cropping during this period. This situation necessitates the development of intensive plantations of woody trees, which could provide a variety of economic and environmental benefits for farmers and communities. However, the high cost of irrigation water and a lack of short-term returns to the farmer until the trees become economically valuable are obstacles to the development of afforestation programs in the area. On the other hand, agroforestry, which integrates crops and/or livestock with trees and shrubs, has a great potential in the area as it could provide farmers with multiple benefits, including diversified income sources, increased biological production and better water quality.

Keywords

Clay Maize Income Sorghum Cote 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bergez J.E., Dalziel A.J.I., Duller C., Eason W.R., Hoppe G., and Lavender R.H. (1997) Light modification in a developing silvopastoral system in the UK: a quantitative analysis. Agroforestry Systems 37: 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brandle J.A., Zhou X., and Hodges L. (2003) Agroforestry for Enhancing Water Use Efficiency. Encyclopedia of Water Science.Google Scholar
  3. Hawke M.F. and Wedderburn M.E. (1994) Microclimate changes under Pinus radiata agroforestry regimes in New Zealand. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 71: 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ishag H.M. (1995) Growth, Development and Yield of Wheat under Heat Stress Conditions in Central Sudan. Wheat Production and Improvement in the Sudan. Proceeding of National Research Workshop, August 1995. Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan.Google Scholar
  5. Monteith J.L., Ong C.K., and Corlett J.E. (1991) Microclimate interactions in agroforestry systems. In: Jarvis P.J. (ed.) Agroforestry Principle and Practices. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 31–44.Google Scholar
  6. Ni S.Q. (1988) The effect of Paulownia-intercropping on wheat yield ad the analysis of ecological benefits. Jiangsu. For. Sci. Techno. 4: 39–41 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  7. Narain P., Singh R.K., Sindhwal N.S., and Joshie, P. (1998) Water balance and water use efficiency of different land uses in western Himalayan valley region. Agricultural Water Management 37 (1998) 225–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ong C.K., Corlet J.E., Singh R.P., and Black C.K. (1991) Above- and below-ground interactions in agroforestry. Forest Ecology and Management 45: 45–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ong C.K. and Leakey R.R.P. (1999) Why tree-crop interactions in agroforestry appear at odds with tree-grass interactions in tropical savannahs. Agroforestry System 45: 109–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ong C.K. and Huxley P. (1996) Tree–Crop Interactions, A physiological Approach. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  11. Reifsnyder W.E. and Darnhofer T.O. (1989) Meteorology and Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  12. Schroth G., Balle P., and Peltier R. (1995) Alley cropping groundnut with Gliricidia sepium in Cote d’Ivoire effects on yields, microclimate and crop diseases. Agroforestry Systems 29: 14–163, Kluwer Academic, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  13. Shapo H. and Adam H. (2006) Effects of alley-cropping systems on crop productivity and water use efficiency in semi-desert region of Northern Sudan. In: Asch, F. & Becker, M. (eds) Prosperity and poverty in a Globalised World–Challenges for Agricultural Research, pp. 285. Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development University of Bonn, October 11–13, 2006. Tropentag 2006.Google Scholar
  14. Soil Survey Staff (1975) A basic System of Soil Classification for making interpreting soil surveys, Agric. Handbook NO 436, SCS, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  15. Yu S., Wang S., Wei P., Zhu Z., Lu X., and Fang, Y. (1991) A study of Paulownia/tea intercropping system–microclimate modification and economic benefits. In: Zhu Z., Cai W., Wang S. and Jian, Y. (eds) Agroforestry Systems in China. CAF-DRC, Singapore, pp. 150–161.Google Scholar
  16. Yu S., Wang S., Wei P., Zhu Z., Lu X.Y., and Fang Y. (1997) A study on Paulownia–Tea Intercropping System–Microclimate Modification and Economic Benefits. Copyright 1997 © International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada reference@idrc.ca. Updated: 10 November 1998.Google Scholar
  17. Yu S., Wang S., Wei P., Zhu Z., Lu X., and Fang, Y. (1991) A study of Paulownia/tea intercropping system–microclimate modification and economic benefits. In: Zhu Z., Cai W., Wang S. and Jian Y. (eds) Agroforestry Systems in China. CAF-DRC, Singapore, pp. 150–161.Google Scholar
  18. Jiang Z., Gao L., Fang Y., Sun X. (1994) Analysis of Paulownia–intercropping types and their benefits in Woyang County of Anhui Province. Forest Ecology and Management 67 (1994) 329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zhaohua Z. (1998) Evaluation and Model Optimization of Paulownia Intercropping System - A Project Summary Report. Agroforestry System in China., International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Shapo
    • 1
  • H. Adam
    • 2
  1. 1.Agricultural Research CorporationWad MedaniSudan
  2. 2.Gezira UniversityWad MedaniSudan

Personalised recommendations