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Functional EPR Spectroscopy and Imaging of Nitroxides

  • Valery V. Khramtsov

Absorption and fluorescent probes are particularly effective for studies at the cellular and subcellular levels, while magnetic resonance spectroscopy has the advantage of in vivo applications in animals and humans. Over the past decade, despite formidable technical problems, significant progress has been made regarding in vivo EPR techniques that have much higher sensitivity than NMR for the same probe concentration. However the potential of the EPR-based techniques is still far from being maximally defined, predominantly because of the requirement for exogenous spin probes. Among paramagnetic probes, the nitroxides, stable organic free radicals, provide a wide range of available structures variable in solubility and tissue redistribution, spectral and functional sensitivity, ability to be targeted and their lifetimes in living tissues. Particularly an ability to follow by EPR specific chemical reactivity of the nitroxides towards biologically relevant compounds provides unique functionality to in vivo EPR spectroscopy and imaging. In this contribution we reviewed applications of EPR spectroscopy and imaging of the nitroxides for the probing local chemical environment, including oxygen, redox state, thiols, pH, and nitric oxide, with particular emphasis on in vivo applications.

Keywords EPR spectroscopy, nitroxides, EPR oximetry, spin pH probes, in vivo EPR, thiol-specific spin labels, glutathione, redox state, EPR imaging, PEDRI (Proton-Electron Double Resonance Imaging)

Keywords

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spin Label Spin Probe Paramagnetic Probe Nitronyl Nitroxides 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valery V. Khramtsov
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care & Sleep MedicineThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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