Advertisement

Potassium Ion Channels in Articular Chondrocytes

Putative Roles in Mechanotransduction, Metabolic Regulation and Cell Proliferation
  • Ali Mobasheri
  • Caroline Dart
  • Richard Barrett-Jolley
Part of the Mechanosensitivity in Cells and Tissues book series (MECT, volume 1)

Abstract

Potassium ion channels belong to a large superfamily of integral membrane proteins that selectively transport K+ across the plasma membrane. They are present in almost all mammalian cells and play a wide variety of physiological roles in both excitable and non-excitable cells. Despite sharing similar architectural and structural designs, the phenotypic diversity required to accomplish their diverse functional roles is created by subtle differences in conductance, time-course, mechanisms of gating and the interaction with a variety of ligands and accessory proteins. For example, the activities of members of the potassium channel superfamily are associated with the control of neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, cardiac and smooth muscle contraction, heart rate, endocrine secretion, epithelial electrolyte transport, cell proliferation, apoptosis and tumour progression. A number of different potassium channels have been identified in articular chondrocytes. Ongoing studies are aimed at deciphering the putative functions of potassium channels in these cells and determining the consequences of their pharmacological activation and inactivation on the unique chondrocyte phenotype. The behaviour of chondrocytes has been shown to be influenced by modulation of ion channel activity. In this review we will focus on recent experimental studies on the roles of potassium ion channels in chondrocytes within articular cartilage and discuss research which has implicated these proteins in metabolic regulation, mechanotransduction, cell volume regulation and cell proliferation. A better understanding of ion channel function may help elucidate the intricate processes involved in mechanotransduction, metabolic regulation and proliferation in chondrocytes.

Keywords

Cartilage Chondrocyte Potassium channel Membrane potential Stretch-activation Mechanotransduction Metabolic regulation Cell proliferation Osteoarthritis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aguilar-Bryan L, Clement JP, Gonzalez G, Kunjilwar K, Babenko A, Bryan J (1998) Toward understanding the assembly and structure of K-ATP channels. Physiological Reviews 78:227–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajubi NE, Klein-Nulend J, Alblas MJ, Burger EH, Nijweide PJ (1999) Signal transduction pathways involved in fluid flow-induced PGE2 production by cultured osteocytes. Am J Physiol 276:E171–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander SP, Mathie A, Peters JA (2006) Guide to receptors and channels, 2nd edition. Br J Pharmacol 147 Suppl 3:S1–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amundson J, Clapham D (1993) Calcium waves. Curr Opin Neurobiol 3:375–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Archer CW, Francis-West P (2003) The chondrocyte. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 35:401–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashcroft FM (2006) From molecule to malady. Nature 440:440–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashcroft FM, Gribble FM (1998) Correlating structure and function in ATP-sensitive K+ channels. Trends in Neurosciences 21:288–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Babenko AP, Aguilar-Bryan L, Bryan J (1998) A view of sur/KIR6.X, KATP channels. Annu Rev Physiol 60:667–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrett-Jolley R, McPherson GA (1998) Characterization of K(ATP) channels in intact mammalian skeletal muscle fibres. Br J Pharmacol 123:1103–1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauer CK, Schwarz JR (2001) Physiology of EAG K+ channels. Journal Of Membrane Biology 182:1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Benjamin M, Archer CW, Ralphs JR (1994) Cytoskeleton of cartilage cells. Microsc Res Tech 28:372–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berridge MJ, Dupont G (1994) Spatial and temporal signalling by calcium. Curr Opin Cell Biol 6:267–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chicurel ME, Chen CS, Ingber DE (1998) Cellular control lies in the balance of forces. Curr Opin Cell Biol 10:232–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coetzee WA, Amarillo Y, Chiu J, Chow A, Lau D, McCormack T, Moreno H, Nadal MS, Ozaita A, Pountney D, Saganich M, De Miera EVS, Rudy B (1999) Molecular diversity of K+ channels. In: Molecular And Functional Diversity Of Ion Channels And Receptors, pp 233–285.Google Scholar
  15. Coimbra IB, Jimenez SA, Hawkins DF, Piera-Velazquez S, Stokes DG (2004) Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha expression in human normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12:336–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornell-Bell AH, Finkbeiner SM (1991) Ca2+ waves in astrocytes. Cell Calcium 12:185–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. D’Andrea P, Calabrese A, Capozzi I, Grandolfo M, Tonon R, Vittur F (2000) Intercellular Ca2+ waves in mechanically stimulated articular chondrocytes. Biorheology 37:75–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Davidson RM, Tatakis DW, Auerbach AL (1990) Multiple forms of mechanosensitive ion channels in osteoblast-like cells. Pflugers Arch 416:646–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Doyle DA, Cabral JM, Pfuetzner RA, Kuo AL, Gulbis JM, Cohen SL, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (1998) The structure of the potassium channel: Molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity. Science 280:69–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duncan RL (1995) Transduction of mechanical strain in bone. ASGSB Bull 8:49–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Duncan RL, Hruska KA (1994) Chronic, intermittent loading alters mechanosensitive channel characteristics in osteoblast-like cells. Am J Physiol 267:F909–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. French AS, Stockbridge LL (1988) Potassium channels in human and avian fibroblasts. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 232:395–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garcia-Ferreiro RE, Kerschensteiner D, Major F, Monje F, Stuhmer W, Pardo LA (2004) Mechanism of block of hEag1 K+ channels by imipramine and astemizole. J Gen Physiol 124: 301–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garcia ML, Kaczorowski GJ (2005) Potassium channels as targets for therapeutic intervention. Sci STKE 2005:pe46.Google Scholar
  25. Goldspink G (1996) Muscle growth and muscle function: a molecular biological perspective. Res Vet Sci 60:193–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldspink G (1999) Changes in muscle mass and phenotype and the expression of autocrine and systemic growth factors by muscle in response to stretch and overload. J Anat 194 (Pt 3):323–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldspink G, Scutt A, Loughna PT, Wells DJ, Jaenicke T, Gerlach GF (1992) Gene expression in skeletal muscle in response to stretch and force generation. Am J Physiol 262:R356–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Grodzinsky AJ, Levenston ME, Jin M, Frank EH (2000) Cartilage tissue remodeling in response to mechanical forces. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2:691–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guilak F (1995) Compression-induced changes in the shape and volume of the chondrocyte nucleus. J Biomech 28:1529–1541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guilak F, Ratcliffe A, Mow VC (1995) Chondrocyte deformation and local tissue strain in articular cartilage: a confocal microscopy study. J Orthop Res 13:410–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guilak F, Zell RA, Erickson GR, Grande DA, Rubin CT, McLeod KJ, Donahue HJ (1999) Mechanically induced calcium waves in articular chondrocytes are inhibited by gadolinium and amiloride. J Orthop Res 17:421–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gustin MC, Zhou XL, Martinac B, Kung C (1988) A mechanosensitive ion channel in the yeast plasma membrane. Science 242:762–765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Haut Donahue TL, Genetos DC, Jacobs CR, Donahue HJ, Yellowley CE (2004) Annexin V disruption impairs mechanically induced calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells. Bone 35:656–663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ingber DE (1998) Cellular basis of mechanotransduction. Biol Bull 194:323–325; discussion 325–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jan LY, Jan YN (1997) Annual Review Prize Lecture - Voltage-gated and inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Journal Of Physiology-London 505:267–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kemp PJ (2006) Detecting acute changes in oxygen: will the real sensor please stand up? Exp Physiol 91:829–834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kemp PJ, Williams SE, Mason HS, Wootton P, Iles DE, Riccardi D, Peers C (2006) Functional proteomics of BK potassium channels: defining the acute oxygen sensor. Novartis Found Symp 272:141–151; discussion 151–146, 214–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kizer N, Guo XL, Hruska K (1997) Reconstitution of stretch-activated cation channels by expression of the alpha-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel cloned from osteoblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:1013–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Knight MM, Ghori SA, Lee DA, Bader DL (1998) Measurement of the deformation of isolated chondrocytes in agarose subjected to cyclic compression. Med Eng Phys 20:684–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lane Smith R, Trindade MC, Ikenoue T, Mohtai M, Das P, Carter DR, Goodman SB, Schurman DJ (2000) Effects of shear stress on articular chondrocyte metabolism. Biorheology 37:95–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee HS, Millward-Sadler SJ, Wright MO, Nuki G, Salter DM (2000) Integrin and mechanosensitive ion channel-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins and beta-catenin in human articular chondrocytes after mechanical stimulation. J Bone Miner Res 15:1501–1509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lesage F, Lazdunski M (2000) Molecular and functional properties of two-pore-domain potassium channels. American Journal Of Physiology-Renal Physiology 279: F793–F801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lippiat JD, Standen NB, Harrow ID, Phillips SC, Davies NW (2003) Properties of BK(Ca) channels formed by bicistronic expression of hSloalpha and beta1–4 subunits in HEK293 cells. J Membr Biol 192:141–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lopatin AN, Makhina EN, Nichols CG (1994) Potassium Channel Block By Cytoplasmic Polyamines As The Mechanism Of Intrinsic Rectification. Nature 372:366–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Magra M, Hughes S, El Haj AJ, Maffulli N (2006) VOCCs and TREK-1 ion channel expression in human tenocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol.Google Scholar
  46. Matsuda H, Saigusa A, Irisawa H (1987) Ohmic Conductance Through The Inwardly Rectifying K-Channel And Blocking By Internal Mg-2+. Nature 325:156–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. May H, Mobasheri A, Womack M, Barrett-Jolley R (2007) Functional expression of aquaporins in canine chondrocytes. Biophys J 117A–117A Suppl. S.Google Scholar
  48. Millward-Sadler SJ, Wright MO, Flatman PW, Salter DM (2004) ATP in the mechanotransduction pathway of normal human chondrocytes. Biorheology 41:567–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Mobasheri A, Martin-Vasallo P (1999) Epithelial sodium channels in skeletal cells; a role in mechanotransduction? Cell Biol Int 23:237–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mobasheri A, Marples D (2004) Expression of the AQP-1 water channel in normal human tissues: a semiquantitative study using tissue microarray technology. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 286:C529–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mobasheri A, Carter SD, Martin-Vasallo P, Shakibaei M (2002a) Integrins and stretch activated ion channels; putative components of functional cell surface mechanoreceptors in articular chondrocytes. Cell Biol Int 26:1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mobasheri A, Neama G, Bell S, Richardson S, Carter SD (2002b) Human articular chondrocytes express three facilitative glucose transporter isoforms: GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT9. Cell Biol Int 26:297–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mobasheri A, Richardson S, Mobasheri R, Shakibaei M, Hoyland JA (2005a) Hypoxia inducible factor-1 and facilitative glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3: Putative molecular components of the oxygen and glucose sensing apparatus in articular chondrocytes. Histology and Histopathology 20:1327–1338.Google Scholar
  54. Mobasheri A, Richardson S, Mobasheri R, Shakibaei M, Hoyland JA (2005b) Hypoxia inducible factor-1 and facilitative glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3: putative molecular components of the oxygen and glucose sensing apparatus in articular chondrocytes. Histol Histopathol 20:1327–1338.Google Scholar
  55. Mobasheri A, Marples D, Young I, Moskaluk C, Frigeri A (2005c) Tissue distribution of the AQP-4 water channel: A study using normal human Tissue MicroArrays. Journal of General Physiology 126:76a–77a.Google Scholar
  56. Mobasheri A, Gent TC, Womack MD, Carter SD, Clegg PD, Barrett-Jolley R (2005d) Quantitative analysis of voltage-gated potassium currents from primary equine (Equus caballus) and elephant (Loxodonta africana) articular chondrocytes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289:R172–180.Google Scholar
  57. Mobasheri A, Gent TC, Nash AI, Womack MD, Moskaluk CA, Barrett-Jolley R (2006) Evidence for functional ATP-sensitive (K(ATP)) potassium channels in human and equine articular chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage.Google Scholar
  58. Mobasheri A, Trujillo E, Bell S, Carter SD, Clegg PD, Martin-Vasallo P, Marples D (2004) Aquaporin water channels AQP1 and AQP3, are expressed in equine articular chondrocytes. Vet J 168:143–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mobasheri A, Vannucci SJ, Bondy CA, Carter SD, Innes JF, Arteaga MF, Trujillo E, Ferraz I, Shakibaei M, Martin-Vasallo P (2002c) Glucose transport and metabolism in chondrocytes: a key to understanding chondrogenesis, skeletal development and cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Histol Histopathol 17:1239–1267.Google Scholar
  60. Mow VC, Wang CC, Hung CT (1999) The extracellular matrix, interstitial fluid and ions as a mechanical signal transducer in articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 7:41–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nichols CG (2006) K-ATP channels as molecular sensors of cellular metabolism. Nature 440:470–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nichols CG, Lopatin AN (1997) Inward rectifier potassium channels. Annual Review Of Physiology 59:171–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Orazizadeh M, Cartlidge C, Wright MO, Millward-Sadler SJ, Nieman J, Halliday BP, Lee HS, Salter DM (2006) Mechanical responses and integrin associated protein expression by human ankle chondrocytes. Biorheology 43:249–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Pardo LA, Contreras-Jurado C, Zientkowska M, Alves F, Stuhmer W (2005) Role of voltage-gated potassium channels in cancer. J Membr Biol 205:115–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pardo LA, del Camino D, Sanchez A, Alves F, Bruggemann A, Beckh S, Stuhmer W (1999) Oncogenic potential of EAG K(+) channels. Embo J 18:5540–5547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Patel AJ, Honore E (2001) Properties and modulation of mammalian 2P domain K+ channels. Trends In Neurosciences 24:339–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Penner R, Neher E (1988) The role of calcium in stimulus-secretion coupling in excitable and non-excitable cells. J Exp Biol 139:329–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Perkins GL, Derfoul A, Ast A, Hall DJ (2005) An inhibitor of the stretch-activated cation receptor exerts a potent effect on chondrocyte phenotype. Differentiation 73:199–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pfander D, Cramer T, Swoboda B (2005) Hypoxia and HIF-1alpha in osteoarthritis. Int Orthop 29:6–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pfander D, Cramer T, Schipani E, Johnson RS (2003) HIF-1alpha controls extracellular matrix synthesis by epiphyseal chondrocytes. J Cell Sci 116:1819–1826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Phillips T, Ferraz I, Bell S, Clegg PD, Carter SD, Mobasheri A (2005) Differential regulation of the GLUT1 and GLUT3 glucose transporters by growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines in equine articular chondrocytes. Vet J 169:216–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ponce A (2006) Expression of voltage dependent potassium currents in freshly dissociated rat articular chondrocytes. Cell Physiol Biochem 18:35–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Prabhakar NR (2006) O2 sensing at the mammalian carotid body: why multiple O2 sensors and multiple transmitters? Exp Physiol 91:17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Quayle JM, Nelson MT, Standen NB (1997) ATP-sensitive and inwardly rectifying potassium channels in smooth muscle. Physiological Reviews 77:1165–1232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Quayle JM, Bonev AD, Brayden JE, Nelson MT (1995) Pharmacology of ATP-sensitive K+ currents in smooth muscle cells from rabbit mesenteric artery. Am J Physiol 269: C1112–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rajpurohit R, Risbud MV, Ducheyne P, Vresilovic EJ, Shapiro IM (2002) Phenotypic characteristics of the nucleus pulposus: expression of hypoxia inducing factor-1, glucose transporter-1 and MMP-2. Cell Tissue Res 308:401–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Richardson S, Neama G, Phillips T, Bell S, Carter SD, Moley KH, Moley JF, Vannucci SJ, Mobasheri A (2003) Molecular characterization and partial cDNA cloning of facilitative glucose transporters expressed in human articular chondrocytes; stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake by IGF-I and elevated MMP-2 secretion by glucose deprivation. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11:92–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Robbins J (2001) KCNQ potassium channels: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 90:1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ryder KD, Duncan RL (2001) Parathyroid hormone enhances fluid shear-induced [Ca2+]i signaling in osteoblastic cells through activation of mechanosensitive and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. J Bone Miner Res 16:240–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Salter DM, Wright MO, Millward-Sadler SJ (2004) NMDA receptor expression and roles in human articular chondrocyte mechanotransduction. Biorheology 41:273–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sanchez JC, Wilkins RJ (2004) Changes in intracellular calcium concentration in response to hypertonicity in bovine articular chondrocytes. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 137:173–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sanchez JC, Danks TA, Wilkins RJ (2003) Mechanisms involved in the increase in intracellular calcium following hypotonic shock in bovine articular chondrocytes. Gen Physiol Biophys 22:487–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Sanguinetti MC, Spector PS (1997) Potassium channelopathies. Neuropharmacology 36:755–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schipani E (2005) Hypoxia and HIF-1 alpha in chondrogenesis. Semin Cell Dev Biol 16:539–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schipani E, Ryan HE, Didrickson S, Kobayashi T, Knight M, Johnson RS (2001) Hypoxia in cartilage: HIF-1alpha is essential for chondrocyte growth arrest and survival. Genes Dev 15:2865–2876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Schulze-Tanzil G, Mobasheri A, de Souza P, John T, Shakibaei M (2004) Loss of chondrogenic potential in dedifferentiated chondrocytes correlates with deficient Shc-Erk interaction and apoptosis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12:448–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shakibaei M, Mobasheri A (2003) Beta1-integrins co-localize with Na, K-ATPase, epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) and voltage activated calcium channels (VACC) in mechanoreceptor complexes of mouse limb-bud chondrocytes. Histol Histopathol 18:343–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Shimazaki A, Wright MO, Elliot K, Salter DM, Millward-Sadler SJ (2006) Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in human articular chondrocytes. Biorheology 43:223–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sigurdson WJ, Morris CE (1989) Stretch-activated ion channels in growth cones of snail neurons. J Neurosci 9:2801–2808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Stanfield PR, Nakajima S, Nakajima Y (2002) Constitutively active and G-protein coupled inward rectifier K+ channels: Kir2.0 and Kir3.0. In: Reviews Of Physiology Biochemistry And Pharmacology, Vol 145, pp 47–179.Google Scholar
  91. Stocker M (2004) Ca2+-activated K+ channels: Molecular determinants and function of the SK family. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5:758–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stuhmer W, Alves F, Hartung F, Zientkowska M, Pardo LA (2006) Potassium channels as tumour markers. FEBS Lett 580:2850–2852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sugimoto T, Yoshino M, Nagao M, Ishii S, Yabu H (1996) Voltage-gated ionic channels in cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 115:223–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Trujillo E, Alvarez de la Rosa D, Mobasheri A, Gonzalez T, Canessa CM, Martin-Vasallo P (1999) Sodium transport systems in human chondrocytes. II. Expression of ENaC, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and Na+/H+ exchangers in healthy and arthritic chondrocytes. Histol Histopathol 14:1023–1031.Google Scholar
  95. Trujillo E, Gonzalez T, Marin R, Martin-Vasallo P, Marples D, Mobasheri A (2004) Human articular chondrocytes, synoviocytes and synovial microvessels express aquaporin water channels; upregulation of AQP1 in rheumatoid arthritis. Histol Histopathol 19:435–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Tsuga K, Tohse N, Yoshino M, Sugimoto T, Yamashita T, Ishii S, Yabu H (2002) Chloride conductance determining membrane potential of rabbit articular chondrocytes. J Membr Biol 185:75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Urban JP (1994) The chondrocyte: a cell under pressure. Br J Rheumatol 33:901–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Walsh KB, Cannon SD, Wuthier RE (1992) Characterization of a delayed rectifier potassium current in chicken growth plate chondrocytes. Am J Physiol 262:C1335–1340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Wang W, Xu J, Kirsch T (2003) Annexin-mediated Ca2+influx regulates growth plate chondrocyte maturation and apoptosis. J Biol Chem 278:3762–3769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang XT, Nagaba S, Nagaba Y, Leung SW, Wang J, Qiu W, Zhao PL, Guggino SE (2000) Cardiac L-type calcium channel alpha 1-subunit is increased by cyclic adenosine monophosphate: messenger RNA and protein expression in intact bone. J Bone Miner Res 15:1275–1285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wilson JR, Duncan NA, Giles WR, Clark RB (2004) A voltage-dependent K+ current contributes to membrane potential of acutely isolated canine articular chondrocytes. J Physiol 557:93–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wohlrab D, Lebek S, Kruger T, Reichel H (2002) Influence of ion channels on the proliferation of human chondrocytes. Biorheology 39:55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Wohlrab D, Vocke M, Klapperstuck T, Hein W (2004) Effects of potassium and anion channel blockers on the cellular response of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. J Orthop Sci 9:364–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wright M, Jobanputra P, Bavington C, Salter DM, Nuki G (1996) Effects of intermittent pressure-induced strain on the electrophysiology of cultured human chondrocytes: evidence for the presence of stretch-activated membrane ion channels. Clin Sci (Lond) 90:61–71.Google Scholar
  105. Yellen G (2002) The voltage-gated potassium channels and their relatives. Nature 419:35–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yellowley CE, Hancox JC, Donahue HJ (2002) Effects of cell swelling on intracellular calcium and membrane currents in bovine articular chondrocytes. J Cell Biochem 86:290–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yokoshiki H, Sunagawa M, Seki T, Sperelakis N (1998) ATP-sensitive K+ channels in pancreatic, cardiac, and vascular smooth muscle cells. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 43:C25–C37.Google Scholar
  108. Zanello LP, Norman AW (2003) Multiple molecular mechanisms of 1 alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 rapid modulation of three ion channel activities in osteoblasts. Bone 33:71–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Mobasheri
  • Caroline Dart
  • Richard Barrett-Jolley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations