Feminism, Liberation, and Education

  • Nelly P. Stromquist
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE, volume 22)

Unquestionably, feminism will be seen by historians as one of the strongest social movements of the twentieth century. Ideas that the rights of women should be included among the rights of all people existed as a coherent set since the late 1860s and culminated in women's right to vote in the early twentieth century, with New Zealand being the fi rst country to grant them that right. However, it was not until the 1960s that the feminist movement spread out to the corners of the globe. This effort, now called the “second wave” of feminism, endorsed the term “liberation” and sought to free women from economic oppression, cultural subordination, and political marginalization. The second wave documented the situation of men and women at all levels of society, from the household to the place of work and government, and concluded that it had to change to make both women and men benefi t from those social arrangements. Liberation, in other words, implied a political movement toward changing the social order, but in ways that meant not the replacement of men by women in the existing hierarchies but the creation of other kinds of social relations, less characterized by rigid and arbitrary hierarchies. The ultimate goal was not always stated but it often involved the reduction of social differences between men and women.

Feminist groups today comprise various kinds: those that fi ght patriarchy, those that engage in academic and cultural production, groups that are pro-human rights, and community-based organizations working on the satisfaction of basic needs of poor women. They have been unifi ed in the past by universalist approaches to human development and social justice. Many scholars recognize the family and the body as sites of the politics of power (Molyneux, 1985; Connell, 1987; Messner, 1992). Most recognize the issue of domestic and sexual violence as a deeply rooted feature of women's subordination and a growing set considers the recognition of sexual orientation — all issues linked to social change and national development (Subrahmanian, 2005).

Keywords

Transportation Expense Arena Nash Boulder 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnot, M. (2006). Freedom's children: A gender perspective on the education of the learner-citizen. International Review of Education, 52, 67–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnot, M., David M., & Weiner G. (1999). Closing the gender gap in education. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  3. Arrighi, G. & Silver, B. (1999). Chaos and governance in the modern world system. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bachrach, P. & Baratz, M. (1970). Power and poverty. Theory and practice. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Behrman, J. & Skoufias, E. (2006). Mitigating myths about policy effectiveness: evaluation of Mexico's antipoverty and human resource investment program. Annals of the American Association of Political and Social Sciences, 606, 244–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blackmore, J. (1999). Troubling women. Feminism, leadership and educational change. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bonder, G. (September 1998). La equidad de género en las políticas educativas: La necesidad de una mirada refl exiva sobre premisas, experiencias y metas. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
  8. Bradley, H. (2004). Catching up? Changing inequalities of gender at work and in the family in the UK. In F. Devine & M. Waters (Eds.), Social iunequalities in comparative perspectives (pp. 257–282). Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble. Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Chilton, S. (November 2005). Does the empirical study of non-decision-making require a normative position? Draft.Google Scholar
  11. Collins, P. (2000). Black feminist thought. Knowledge, conciousness, and the politics of empowerment (2nd edn.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Connell, R. (1995). Masculinities. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  13. Connell, R. (1987). Gender and power: Society, the person and sexual politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  14. Daly, M. (1978). Gyn/Ecology. The methaethics of radical feminism. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  15. Falk, R. (1999). Predatory globalization: A critique. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fraser, N. (1998). From redistribution to recognition? Dilemmas of justice in a “post-socialist” age. In A. Phillips (Ed.), Feminism and politics (pp. 430–460). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Fraser, N. (1997). Justice interruptus: Critical refl ections on the “postsocialist” condition. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. González de la Rocha, M. (2006). Vanishing assets: Cumulative disadvantage among the urban poor. Annals of the American Association of Political and Social Sciences, 606, 68–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guzmán, V. (October 2003). Gobernabilidad democrática y género, una articulación posible. Santiago: Unidad Mujer y Desarrollo, UN Economic and Social Commission.Google Scholar
  20. Kendall, N. (2006). Intersection of sexuality and public schooling. Paper presented at the American Education Research Association annual meeting (7–11 April). San Francisco.Google Scholar
  21. Kenway, J. (2005). Gender equity in education: The Australian experience. In L. Chisholm & J. September (Eds.), Gender equity in South African education 1994–2004 (pp. 39–54). Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council.Google Scholar
  22. Krieger, J. (Ed.) (2006). Globalization and state power. New York: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  23. Lazar, M. (2005). Politicising gender in discourse: Feminist critical discourse analysis as political perspective and praxis. In M. Lazar (Ed.), Feminist critical discourse analysis. Gender, power and ideology in discourse (pp. 1–28). Houndsmills, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  24. Lynch, K. (2001). Creating a dialogue between sociological and egalitarian theory in education. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 11(3), 237–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mannah, S. (2005). The state of mobilisation of women teachers in the South African Democratic Teachers' Union. In L. Chisholm & J. September (Eds.), Gender equity in South African education 1994–2004 (pp. 146–155). Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council.Google Scholar
  26. Mazur, A. (2002). Theorizing feminist policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Messner, M. (1992). Power at play: Sports and the problem of masculinity. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  28. Mohanty, C. (2006). US empire and the project of women's studies: Stories of citizenship, complicity and dissent. Gender, Place and Culture, 13(1), 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Molyneaux, M. (1985). Mobilization without emancipation? Women's interest, state and revolution in Nicaragua, Feminist Studies, 11(2), 227–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nash, M., Klein, S., Bitters, B., Howe, W., Hobbs, S., Shevitz, L., & Wharton, L. The role of government in advancing gender equity in education. In Klein, S. (general Ed.), Handbook for achieving gender equity through education (pp. 63–101, 2nd edn.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Odora-Hoppers, C. (2005). Between “mainstreaming” and “transformation”: Lessons and challenges for institutional change. In L. Chisholm & J. September (Eds.), Gender Equity in South African Education 1994–2004 (pp. 55–73). Cape Town: Human Sciences Research CouncilGoogle Scholar
  32. Pateman, C. (1988). The sexual contract. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Perry, L. (2003/2004). Education for democracy: Some basic defi nitions, concepts, and clarifi cations. Political Crossroads, 10–11, 33–43.Google Scholar
  34. Phillips, A. (1999). Which inequalities matter? Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  35. Stromquist, N. (2006c). Feminist organizations and social transformation in Latin America. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Stromquist, N. (2007). Gender equity education globally. In S. Klein (general Ed.), Handbook for achieving gender equity through education (pp. 33–42, 2nd. edn.). Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  37. Stromquist, N. (Ed.) (2006b). La construcción del género en las políticas públicas. Perspectivas comparadas desde América Latina. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.Google Scholar
  38. Stromquist, N. (2006a). The dismantling of tools by the master: Evaluating gender equity by the state. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association, 7–11 April San Francisco.Google Scholar
  39. Subrahmanian, R. (2005). Gender equity in education: A perspective from development. In L. Chisholm & J. September (Eds.), Gender equity in South African education 1994–2004 (pp. 27–39). Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council.Google Scholar
  40. UNESCO (2003). E FA global monitoring report 2003/4. Gender and education for all. The leap to equality. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  41. West, C. & Zimmerman, D. (1987). Doing gender. Gender in Society, 1, 125–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams, C., Giuffre, P., & Dellinger, K. (2004). Research on gender stratifi cation in the U.S. In F. Devine & M. Waters (Eds.), Social inequalities in comparative perspectives (pp. 214–236). Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nelly P. Stromquist

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations