Advertisement

In vitro Propagation of Fraxinus Species

  • J. W. Van Sambeek
  • J. E. Preece

The genus Fraxinus, a member of the Oleaceae family, includes over 65 ash species native to the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere (Miller, 1955). Several of the ash species are important forest trees noted for their tough, highly resistant to shock, straight grained wood as well as being excellent shade trees for parks and residential areas (Dirr, 1998). Economically, the most important species include white ash (F. americana L.) and green or red ash (F. pennsylvanica Marsh.) in the United States and Europe or common ash (F. excelsior L.), flowering ash (F. ornus L.), and narrow leaf ash (F. augustifolia Vahl.) in Europe and Asia Minor.

Propagation is usually by seed collected in the fall and sown immediately or artificially stratified for 90 to 120 days before sowing in the spring. Reliance on seed propagation for conventional breeding is problematic as it may take 10 to 25 years for trees to attain reproductive maturity and then abundant seed crops may only be produced every 3 to 5 years (Bonner, 1974). Although there are no reliable methods for rooting softwood cuttings, ash cultivars can be propagated by budding, grafting, and possibly layering (Hartmann et al., 1997). In vitro propagation through axillary shoot micropropagation, adventitious shoot organogenesis, or somatic embryogenesis is promising for several of the ash species. The objective of this chapter is to describe the procedures we have used and to compare them to some of the most promising in vitro approaches used by other researchers for the different ash species.

Keywords

Somatic Embryogenesis Adventitious Root Adventitious Shoot Axillary Shoot Cotyledonary Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aftab, F., Mansouri, K. & Preece, J.E. (2005) The influence of environment, media, and Zerotol on forcing and in vitro establishment of softwood shoots from large stem segments of Acer saccharinum L. and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Propag. of Ornam. Plants 5, 113-118. Google Scholar
  2. Arrillaga, I., Lerma, V. & Segura, J. (1992a) Micropropagation of juvenile and mature flowering ash. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 117, 346-350. Google Scholar
  3. Arrillaga, I., Marzo, T. & Segura, J. (1992b) Embryo culture of Fraxinus ornus and Sorbus domestica removes seed dormancy. HortScience 27, 371. Google Scholar
  4. Bailey, A.B., Preece, J.E., & Van Sambeek, J.W. (1998) Axillary shoot proliferation of adult eastern black walnut, HortScience 33, 478. Google Scholar
  5. Bates, S., Preece, J.E., Navarrete, N.E., Van Sambeek, J.W. & Gaffney, G.R. (1992) Thidiazuron stimulates shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in white ash (Fraxinus americana L.). Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 31, 21-29. Google Scholar
  6. Bates, S.A., Preece, J.E. & Yopp, J.H. (1993) Secondary somatic embryogenesis and plantlet conversion of white ash. HortScience 28, 508. Google Scholar
  7. Bonner, F.T. (1974) Fraxinus L. Ash. In Schopmeyer, C.S. (techn. coord.) Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agric. Hdbk. No. 450. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. pp. 411-419.Google Scholar
  8. Browne, R. & Hicks, G. (1983) Development in vitro of white ash buds. Ann. Bot. 52, 101-104.Google Scholar
  9. Chalupa, V. (1984) In vitro propagation of oak (Quercus robur L.) and linden (Tilia cordata Mill). Biol. Plant. 26, 374-377. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chalupa, V. (1990) Micropropagation of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Biol. Plant. 32, 332-338. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Compton, M.E. & Preece, J.E. (1988) Response of tobacco callus to shoot tip exudation from five species. HortScience 23, 208-210. Google Scholar
  12. Dirr, M.A. (1998) Manual of Woody Landscape Plants - Their Identification, Ornamental Characteristics, Culture, Propagation, and Uses. 5th Ed. Stipes Publishing L.L.C., Champaign, IL. pp. 392-400.Google Scholar
  13. Driver, J.A. & Kuniyuki, A.H. (1984) In vitro propagation of Paradox walnut rootstock. HortScience 19, 507-509. Google Scholar
  14. Hammatt, N. (1994) Shoot initiation in the leaflet axils of compound leaves from micropropagated shoots of juvenile and mature common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). J. Exp. Bot. 45, 871-875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hammatt, N. & Ridout, M.S. (1992) Micropropagation of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 13, 67-74. Google Scholar
  16. Hartmann, H.T., Kester, D.E., Davies, F.T. Jr. & Geneve, R.L. (1997) Plant Propagation - Principles and Practices. 6th Ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. 770 p. Google Scholar
  17. Ikemori, Y.K. (1987) Epicormic shoots from the branches of Eucalyptus grandis as an explant source for in vitro culture. Commonw. For. Rev. 66, 351-356. Google Scholar
  18. Kim, M.-S., Schumann, C.M. & Klopfenstein, N.B. (1997) Effects of thidiazuron and benzlyadenine on axillary shoot proliferation of three green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) clones. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 48, 45-52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim, M.-S., Klopfenstein, N.B. & Cregg, B.M. (1998) In vitro and ex vitro rooting of micropropagated shoots using three green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) clones. New Forest 16, 43-57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Miller, G.N. (1955) The genus Fraxinus, the ashes, in North America, North of Mexico. Memoir 335. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn., Ithaca, NY. 64 p.Google Scholar
  21. Murashige, T. & Skoog, F. (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Navarrete, N.E., Van Sambeek, J.W., Preece, J.E. & Gaffney, G.R. (1989) Improved micropropagation of white ash (Fraxinus americana L.). In Rink, G. & Budelsky, C.A. (Eds) Proc., 7th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. USDA For. Serv., St. Paul, MN. pp. 146-149.Google Scholar
  23. Perez-Parron, M.A., Gonzalez-Benito, M.E. & Perez, C. (1994) Micropropagation of Fraxinus angustifolia from mature and juvenile plant material. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 37, 297-302. Google Scholar
  24. Preece, J.E. & Sutter, E.G. (1991) Acclimatization of micropropagated plants to the greenhouse and the field. In Debergh, P.C. & Simmerman, R.H. (Eds) Micropropagation. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht. pp. 71-93. Google Scholar
  25. Preece, J.E. & Bates, S. (1995) Somatic embryogenesis in white ash (Fraxinus americana L.). In Jain, S., Gupta, P. & Newton, R. (Eds) Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Vol. 2. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordecht. pp. 311-325. Google Scholar
  26. Preece, J.E., Christ, P.H., Ensenberger, L. & Zhao, J. (1987) Micropropagation of ash (Fraxinus). Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 37, 366-372. Google Scholar
  27. Preece, J.E., Zhao, J.-I. & Kung, F.H. (1989) Callus production and somatic embryogenesis from white ash. HortScience 24, 377-380. Google Scholar
  28. Preece, J.E., Navarrete, N., Van Sambeek, J.W. & Gaffney, G.R. (1991) An in vitro microplant bioassay using clonal white ash to test for tall fescue allelopathy. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 27, 203-210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Preece, J.E., Bates, S.A. & Van Sambeek, J.W. (1995) Germination of cut seeds and seedling growth of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in vitro. Can. J. For. Res. 25, 1368-1374. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tabrett, A.M. & Hammatt, N. (1992) Regeneration of shoots from embryo hypocotyls of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Plant Cell Rep. 11, 514-518. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Van Sambeek, J.W. & Preece, J.E. (1999) Forcing environment affects epicormic sprout production from branch segments for vegetative propagation of adult hardwoods. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 49, 156-158. Google Scholar
  32. Van Sambeek, J.W., Lambus, L.J., Khan, S.B. & Preece, J.E. (1997) In vitro establishment of tissues from adult black walnut. In Van Sambeek, J.W. (Ed.) Knowledge for the Future of Black Walnut. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-191. USDA Forest Service, St. Paul, MN. pp. 78-92. Google Scholar
  33. Van Sambeek, J.W., Lambus, L.J. & Preece, J.E. (1998a) Production of epicormic sprouts on branch segments of adult black walnut for in vitro culture. Ann. Rpt. Northern Nut Growers Assoc. 88, 93- 104. Google Scholar
  34. Van Sambeek, J.W., Navarrete, N.E. & Preece, J.E. (1998b) Rooting softwood cuttings from forced stem segments of adult white ash. HortScience 33, 503. Google Scholar
  35. Van Sambeek, J.W., Preece, J.E. & Zaczek, J.J. (1999) Field performance of in vitro propagated white ash microplants. In Stringer, J.W. & Loftis, D.L. (Eds) Proc., Twelfth Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-24. USDA Forest Service, Ashville, NC. p. 259.Google Scholar
  36. Van Sambeek, J.W., Preece, J.E. & Navarrete-Tindall, N.E. (2001) Comparative in vitro culture of white and green ash from seed to plantlet production. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 51, 526-534.Google Scholar
  37. Van Sambeek, J.W., Preece, J.E. & Coggeshall, M.V. (2002) Forcing epicormic sprouts on branch segments of adult hardwoods for softwood cuttings. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 52, 417-424. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Van Sambeek
    • 1
  • J. E. Preece
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA Forest ServiceNorthern Research StationColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant, Soil, and Agricultural SystemsSouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA

Personalised recommendations