A Layperson's Primer on Multiple Stressors
- 717 Downloads
This article introduces the concept of multiple stressors. It has been written for the layperson, in terms that do not require a strong scientific background. It has been written to facilitate scientists’ communication with the public and funding agencies about multiple stressors. This article briefly explains several major classes of contaminants whose global dispersal and long-term persistence in the environment might cause them to contribute to multiple stressors. Highlighted is our lack of understanding about the potential interactions among multiple stressors and the need for much additional research. Interactions are explained through a simple example of various plausible responses that an organism might exhibit when exposed to both cadmium and radiation. Our current approach for determining human and ecological risks from contaminants is explained such that the reader is aware of why multiple stressor research is needed. This article stresses the need for a coordinated, multinational, multidisciplinary research plan for multiple stressors.
KeywordsPolar Bear Multiple Stressor Killer Whale Ecological Risk Assessment Chemical Mixture
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- AMAP, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. 2002. Arctic Pollution. AMAP: Oslo, Norway. 111 pp.Google Scholar
- CAS. Chemical Abstracts Service, American Chemical Society. 2005. The latest CAS registry number 7 and substance count. (accessed Oct. 2006) http://www.cas.org/cgi-bin/regreport.pl.
- Daughton, C. 2005. “Emerging” chemicals as pollutants in the environment: A 21st century perspective. Renewable Resour. J. 23:6–23.Google Scholar
- Duncan, D. 2006. The chemicals within us. National Geographic Society Magazine. October: 116–135.Google Scholar
- Fisher, D. 2005. How we depend on chemicals. (accessed Oct. 2006). http://fluoridealert.org/pesticides/2005/effect.pfos.class.news.133.htm.
- Hano, T., Y. Oshima, T. Oe, M. Kinoshita, M. Tanaka, Y. Wakamatsu, K. Ozato, and T. Honjo. 2005. Quantitative bio-imaging analysis for evaluation of sexual differentiation in germ cells of olvas-GFP/ST-II YI medaka (Oryzias latipes) nanoinjected in ovo with ethinylestradiol. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 24:70–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kashiwada, S. 2006. Distribution of nanoparticles in the see-through medaka (Oryzias latipes). Environ. Health Perspect. 114:1697–1702.Google Scholar
- Kimmel, C., W. Ballard, S. Kimmel, B. Ullmann, and T. Schilling. 1995. Stages of embryonic development of the zebrafish. Dev. Dyn. 203:253–310.Google Scholar
- US DHHS. 2004a. Guidance manual for the assessment of joint toxic action of chemical mixtures. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Washington DC.Google Scholar
- US DHHS. 2004b. Interaction profile for persistent chemical found in fish (chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, hexachlorobenzene, p, p-DDE, methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Washington DC.Google Scholar
- US EPA 2000. Supplementary guidance for conducting health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. EPA/630/R-00/–2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Yang, R. S. H. 2004. Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Yang, R. S. H., H. El-Masri, R. Thomas, I. Dobrev, J. Dennison Jr., D-S. Bae, J. Campain, K. Liao, B. Reisfeld, M. Andersen, and M. Mumtaz. 2004. Chemical mixture toxicology: from descriptive to mechanistic, and going on to in silico toxicology. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 18:65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar