Lentil pp 349-383 | Cite as

Quality Seed Production



Modern varieties are backbone of formal seed industry. The availability, access, and use of quality seed of adaptable crop varieties, are critical in increasing agricultural productivity, ensuring food security, and improving farmers livelihoods. However, research in legumes particularly lentil is relatively new compared to cereals both at IARCs and NARS (citeauthorch21:aw-hassan2003, citeyearch21:aw-hassan2003). The impact of investments in agricultural research can be realized only if farmers have better access to high quality seed of the new crop varieties. Since seed quality is one of the main factors that affects crop production potential it should reach farmers in a good quality state. Seed quality comprises many aspects where four key attributes are explicitly identified: genetic, physical, physiological and health quality. However, seed quality can be affected by environmental conditions under which the crop is grown and the cultural practices used for production. Maintaining seed quality is essential if the variety is to meet the expectation of farmers and consumers. Seed producers should be aware of the technical and regulatory requirements for growing a crop for seed, and ensure that all operations are carried out strictly under specific guidelines in a timely fashion. The quality of the seed can be ensured by following a combination of key technical procedures and regulatory measures. The quality control assurance system by establishing administrative guidelines and technical procedures plays a supervisory role for smooth operation and implementation of the program and for enforcing the regulatory measures to maintain the quality of seed produced. Limited choice of improved varieties, lack of sufficient quantity of seed, mechanization problems in developing countries, and high seed production costs, are some of the major constraints hindering the development of an effective and efficient lentil seed industry. This chapter covers key components such as variety maintenance and technical aspects of seed production, seed processing, seed storage, and seed quality assurance


Seed Production Faba Bean Seed Storage Seed Quality Ascochyta Blight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agarwal, V.K. and J.B. Sinclair. 1987. Principles of Seed Pathology, Vol. II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 168 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal, P.K. 1985. Seed production technology for chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and lentil (Lens culinaris). In Faba beans, Kabuli Chickpeas, and Lentils in the 1980s (Saxena, M.C. and Varma, S., eds.). ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 271–279 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Agrawal, P.K. 1980. Relative storability of seeds of ten species under ambient conditions. Seed Research 9: 94–99.Google Scholar
  4. Agrawal, P.K. 1976. Identification of suitable seed storage places in India on the basis of temperature and relative humidity conditions. Seed Research. 4: 6–11.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous. 1984. Annual progress report. Division of Seed Science and Technology. New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  6. Aw-Hassan, A., K. Shideed, A. Sarker, R.Tutwiler and W. Erskine. 2003. Economic impact of international and national lentil improvement research in developing countries. In Evenson, R.E. and Gollin, D. (eds.) Crop Variety Improvement and Its Effect on Productivity: The Impact of International Agricultural Research. CABI, Wallingford, UK. 275–291 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Basler, F. 1981. Weeds and their control. In Lentils (Webb, C and Hawtin, G. eds.).CAB, Farnham, UK. 143–154 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Baya, B. and A. Yahyaoui. 2005. Keys to Orobanche Management. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 8 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Beniwal, S.P.S. Seid Ahmed and Negussie Tadesse. 1989. Effect of sun drying of lentil seeds on the control of Ascochyta lentis. Lens 16(2) 27–28.Google Scholar
  10. Bishaw, Z., Abdoul Aziz Niane and A.J.G. van Gastel. 2006. Technical Guidelines for Quality Seed Production. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 23ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Bond, E.J. 1984. Manual of fumigation for insect control. Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  12. Bouwman, A.J. 1992. Maintenance breeding and multiplication of pea and faba bean cultivars. Maintenance of protein peas (Pisum sativum) and field beans (Vicia faba). Euphytica 61: 213–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyd, A.H., G.M. Dougherty, R.K. Matthews, K.W.and Rushing. 1975. Seed drying and processing. In Cereal Seed Technology (Feistritzer, W.P., ed.). FAO, Rome, Italy. 60–86 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Brandenburg, N.P. 1977a. The principles and practice of seed cleaning: Separation with equipment that senses dimensions, shape, density and terminal velocity of seeds. Seed Science and Technology 5(2): 173–186.Google Scholar
  15. Brandenburg, N.P. and J.K. Park. 1977b. The principles and practice of seed cleaning: Separation with equipment that senses surface texture color, resilience and electrical properties of seeds. Seed Science and Technology 5(2): 187–197.Google Scholar
  16. Bushara, A.G. 1988. Insect depredation during storage. In World Crops: Cool Season Food Legumes (Summerfield, R.J., ed.). Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.367–378 pp.Google Scholar
  17. De, Rajib K. and R.G. Chaudhary. 1999. Biological and chemical seed treatment against lentil wilt. Lens Newsletter. 26. (1/2): 28–31Google Scholar
  18. Delouche, J. and A.A.Gomaa. 1999. Policy procedures for release of new publicly developed crop vareites in Egypt. Agricultural Policy Reform Project, Report No. 62. MALR, Cairo, Egypt. 66 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Delouche J.C. 1988. Seed storage practices and problems for cool season legumes. In World Crops: Cool Season Food Legumes (Summerfield, R.J., ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 331–339 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Delouche, J.C., R.K. Matthes, G.M. Dougherty and A.H. Boyd. 1973. Storage of seed in sub-torpical and tropical regions. Seed Science and Technology 1: 671–700.Google Scholar
  21. Diekmann, M. 1986. Seed treatment. In Seed Production Technology (Srivastava, J.P. and Simarski, L.T., eds.). ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 219–225 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Diekmann, M. 1988. Control of storage pests. In Quality Seed Production. (van Gastel, A.J.G. and Kerley,J., eds.). ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 73–81 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Doerfler, Th. 1976. Seed production guide for the tropics. GTZ, Eschborn, Germany.Google Scholar
  24. Drijfhout, E. 1981. Maintenance breeding of beans. In Seeds, FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 39. Proceedings of FAO/SIDA Technical Conference on Improved Seed Production 2–6 January 1981, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  25. Ellis, R.H., P.K. Agrawal and E.E. Roos. 1988. Harvesting and storage factors that affect seed quality in pea, lentil, faba bean and chickpea. In World Crops: Cool Season Food Legumes (Summerfield, R.J., ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 303–329 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Ellis, R.H., T.D. Hong and Roberts E.H. 1987. The development of desiccation-tolerance and maximum seed quality during seed maturation in six grain legumes. Annals of Botany 59:23–29.Google Scholar
  27. Ellis, R.H. and E.H. Roberts. 1980. Improved equations for prediction of seed longevity. Annals of Botany 45, 13–30.Google Scholar
  28. Ellis, M.A. and E.H. Paschal. 1979. Effect of fungicide seed treatment on internally seed borne fungi, germination and field emergence of pigeon pea. Seed Science and Technology 7: 75–81Google Scholar
  29. Erskine, W., K.B. Singh. and L.D. Robertson. 1988. Seed production of food legumes in the Mediterranean area. In Seed Production in and for Mediterranean Countries (van Gastel, A.J.G. and Hopkins, J.D., eds.). ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 120–130 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Erskine, W., K.B. Singh, L.D. Robertson, M.C. Saxena and J. Diekmann. 1987. Mechanization of field experimentation in faba bean, kabuli chickpea and lentil. In Mechanization of Field Experiments in Semi-arid Areas (Karisson, D., ed.), Proceedings of the IAMFE/ICARDA Conference, 23–27 May 1987, Aleppo, Syria. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 169–176 pp.Google Scholar
  31. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1981. Cereal and grain-legume seed processing. Technical Guidelines. FAO, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  32. Galanopoulou, S., M. Facinelli and F. Lorenzetti. 1996. General agronomic aspects of seed production. In Seed Science and Technology, Proceedings of a Train-the-trainers Workshop Sponsored by Med-campus Programme (EEC) (van Gastel, A.J.G., Pagnotta, M.A. and Porceddu, E, eds), 24 April to 9 May 1993. Amman, Jordan. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 311 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Gan, Y., K.G. Hanson, R.P. Zentner, F. Selles, and C.L. McDonald. 2005. Response of lentil to microbial inoculation and low rates of fertilization in semiarid Canadian prairies. Can. J. Plant Sci. 85: 847–855.Google Scholar
  34. Gisselquist, D. 1997. Private commercial varieties and seeds: opportunities and obstacles.In Tripp, R (ed.) New Seed and Old Laws: Regulatory Reform and Diversification of National Seed Systems. ODI, London, UK. 174–184Google Scholar
  35. Gisselquist, D. and J. Srivastava (ed.). 1997. Easing barriers to movement of plant varieties for agricultural development. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 367. The World Bank, Washington D.C., USA. 148 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Gregg, B.R. 1983. Seed processing in the tropics. Seed Science and Technology 11: 19–39.Google Scholar
  37. Gregg, B., A.J.G. van Gastel, B. Homeyer, K. Holm, A.S.A. Gomaa and M., Salah Wanis. 1990a. Roguing seed production fields. NARP Publication No. 40.Google Scholar
  38. Gregg, B., A.J.G. van Gastel, B. Homeyer, K. Holm, A.S.A. Gomaa, M. Salah Wanis, A.E. Ghanem, A. Abdel Monem, A. Gouda, and O. Shehata. 1990b. Procedures for Inspecting Wheat Seed Fields. NARP Publication No. 39, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  39. Gwinner, J., R. Harnisch and O. Mück. 1990. Manual on the prevention of post-harvest grain losses. GTZ, Postfach 5180, D-6236 Eschborn, Germany.Google Scholar
  40. Hampton, J.G. 2002. What is seed quality? Seed Science and Technology 30: 1–10.Google Scholar
  41. Harrington, J.F., and J.E. Douglas. 1970. Seed storage and packaging. National Seeds Corporation and Rockefeller Foundation. New Delhi, India. 222 pp.Google Scholar
  42. ICARDA. 1990. Annual report legume improvement program. Aleppo, Syria.Google Scholar
  43. ICARDA. 2002. WANA Catalogue of field and seed standards. Network Publication No. 25/02. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.Google Scholar
  44. ISTA (International Seed Testing Association) 2003. International Rules for seed testing and Supplement. ISTA, Bassersdorf, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  45. ISTA (International Seed Testing Association). 1977. Seed cleaning and processing. Seed Science and Technology 5(2).Google Scholar
  46. Julen, G. 1983. Maintenance of varietal purity for seed production. More Food from Better Technology, FAO, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  47. Justice, O.L. and L.N. Bass. 1978. Principles and practices of seed storage. USDA Agriculture Handbook 506. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  48. Kaiser, W.J., M.D. Ramsey, K.M. Makkouk, T.W. Bretag, N.A. Açikgöz, J. Kumar and F.W. Nutter, Jr. 200. Foliar diseases of cool season food legumes and their control, 437–455. In Linking Research and Marketing Opportunities for Pulses in the 21st Century. Proceedings of the Third International Food Legumes Research Conference, 22–26 September 1997, Adeladie, South Australia (Knight, R. ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  49. Kaiser, W.J. and R.M. Hannan. 1987. Seed treatment fungicides for control of seed borne Ascochyta lentis on lentil. Plant Disease 71: 58–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Khalil S., M. Kharrat, R. Malhotra, M. Saxena and W. Erskine. 2004. Breeding faba bean for Orobanche resistance. In Integrated Management of Orobanche in Food Legumes in the Near East and North Africa. Proceedings of the Expert Consultation on IPM for Orobanche in Food Legume Systems in the Near East and North Africa, 7–9 April 2003, Rabat, Morocco (eds. Dahan, Rachid and El-Mourid, M.). ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 1–18 ppGoogle Scholar
  51. Kraak, H.L. 1992. A computer program to predict seed storage behavior. Seed Science and Technology 20: 337–338.Google Scholar
  52. Kraft, J.M. 1982. Field and greenhouse studies on pea seed treatments. Plant Disease 66: 798–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Laverack, G. K. 1994. Management of breeders seed production. Seed Science and Technology 22. 551–563.Google Scholar
  54. Laverack, G.K. and M.R. Turner. 1995. Roguing seed crops for genetic purity: a review. Plant Varieties and Seeds 8: 29–45.Google Scholar
  55. Wilson, V. E. and Law, A. G. 1972. Natural crossing in Lens esculenta Moench. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science: 79:142–3.Google Scholar
  56. McDonald (Jr), M.B. and C.J. Nelson, C.J. (eds.). 1986. Physiology of deterioration, CSSA Special Publication Number 11. CSSA, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
  57. Morrall, R.A.A. and J.W. Sheppard. 1981. Ascochyta blight of lentils in western Canada. Canadian Plant Disease Survey 6:7–13Google Scholar
  58. OECD. 2000. OECD schemes for varietal certification of seed moving in international trade: OECD seed schemes 2000. OECD, Paris, France. 215 ppGoogle Scholar
  59. Papavizas, G.C. and J.A. Lewis. 1975. Effect of seed treatment with fungicides on bean root rots (Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Thielaviopsis basicola). Plant Disease Reporter 59: 24–28Google Scholar
  60. Ram, G., B.S. Chandrakar, M.K. Misra, and R.K. Katre. 1984. Effect of seed treatment with Rhizobium and Dithane M-45 on plant height, nodulation and yield of chickpea. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 54: 214–216Google Scholar
  61. Reed, W. C. Cardona, S. Sithanantham and S.S. Lateef. 1987. The chickpea insect pests and their control. In The Chcikpea (Saxena, M.C. and K.B. Singh, eds.). CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 283–318 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Revier, P.R. and A.W. Young. 1970. Field inspection techniques in seed production. Department of Agronomy, Texas Technological College, Lubbock, Texas.Google Scholar
  63. Roberts, E.H. 1972. Storage environments and the control of viability. In Viability of Seeds (Roberts, E.H., ed.). Chapman and Hall Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  64. Roberts, E.H. and K. Osei-bonsu. 1988. Seed and seedling vigour. In World Crops: Cool Season Food Legumes (Summerfield, R.J., ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 897–910 pp.Google Scholar
  65. Sauer, D.B. 1992. Storage of cereal grains and their products. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  66. Saxena, M.C., J. Diekmann, W. Erskine and K.B. Singh. 1987. Mechanization of harvest in lentil and chickpea in semi-arid areas. In: Mechanization of Field Experiments in Semi-arid Areas, Proceedings of the IAMFE/ICARDA Conference, 23–27 May, 1987, Aleppo, Syria. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 211–228 pp.Google Scholar
  67. Sharma, S.P. 1987. Breeder seed production in self-pollinated crops. In Techniques in Seed Science and Technology (Agrawal, P.K. and Dadlani, M. eds.). South Asian PublishersGoogle Scholar
  68. Singh, K.B. 1986. Principles and techniques for seed production in chickpea. In Seed Production Technology (Srivastava, J.P. and Simarski, L.T., eds.). ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 247–256 pp.Google Scholar
  69. Singh, K.B. and M.C. Saxena. 1999. Chickpeas. In The Tropical Agriculturist (Coste, R. ed.). Macmillan Education Ltd, London. 134 pp.Google Scholar
  70. Thomson, J.R. 1979. An introduction to seed technology. Leonard Hill, Glasgow, UK. 252 pp.Google Scholar
  71. Trapero-Casas, A., W.J. Kaiser, and D.M. Ingram 1990. Control of Pythium seed rot and pre-emergence damping-off of chickpea in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Spain. Plant Disease 74: 563–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tu, J.C. 1988. Control of bean anthracnose caused by the delta and lambda races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Canada. Plant Disease 72: 5–8Google Scholar
  73. Van der Burg, W.J. 1986. An introduction to seed cleaning. In Seed Production Technology (Srivastava, J.P. and Simarski, L.T., eds.). ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 107–126 pp.Google Scholar
  74. Van Gastel, A.J.G., B.R. Gregg and E.A. Asiedu (2002). Seed quality control in developing countries. Journal of New Seeds 4(1/2): 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. UPOV (International Union for the Protection of new Varieties of Plants). 2003. Lentil: Guidelines for the Conduct of Tests for Distinctness, Homogeneity and Stability. TG/210/1, UPOV, Geneva, Switzerland. pp 21–22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)AleppoSyria
  2. 2.Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaBox 1030 Swift Current,SKCanada

Personalised recommendations