Assessment of Values and Role Salience

  • Branimir Šverko
  • Toni Babarović
  • Iva Šverko

Peoples’ values and the importance they assign to their life roles have long been viewed as important factors in career choice and development. In particular this is true of values, which have received considerable attention already within the traditional, trait-oriented approaches to career planning. Early approaches have emphasised values as person variables that influence individuals’ career choice and development. Traditionally, vocational guidance was seen primarily as a process of helping individuals to match their personal traits with those required by occupations in order to enhance their satisfactoriness and satisfaction. By applying the matching paradigm, the vocational guidance practitioners assisted their clients in choosing the appropriate career track, that is, the one that was believed to be well matched or congruent with the client’s traits. The traits used for matching have changed, however, over the years. In the beginning, during the first decades of the 20th century, abilities (what a person can do) and interest (what a person likes to do) were used as matching variables. Later, in the 1950s, work values (what a person considers important in working) were added as the third matching variable.

The main objective of this chapter is to examine the methodological issues connected with the measurement of values and role salience and to review representative measures that have been used in their assessment. Before that, however, the conceptualisation of the basic constructs addressed in this chapter must be examined.

Keywords

Career Development Career Choice Career Guidance Occupational Choice Vocational Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allport, G. W., Vernon, P. E., & Lindzey, G. (1970). The study of values (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Riverside.Google Scholar
  2. Alwin, D. F., & Krosnick, J. A. (1985). The measurement of values in surveys: A comparison of ratings and rankings. Public Opinion Quarterly, 49, 535–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baron, H. (1996). Strengths and limitation of ipsative measurement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 69, 49–56.Google Scholar
  4. Baron, J., & Spranca, A. (1997). Protected values. Orgnaizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, D. (1996). Brown’s values-based holistic model of career and life-choices and satisfaction. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (3rd ed., pp. 337–372). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, D. (2002). The role of work values and cultural values in occupational choice, satisfaction, and success: A theoretical statement. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80, 48–56.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, D. (2003). Career information, career counselling, and career development (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, D., & Crace, R. K (1996). Values in life role choices and outcome: A conceptual model. Career Development Quarterly, 44, 211–223.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, D., & Crace, R. K. (2002). Life values inventory: Facilitator’s guide. Williamsburg, VA: Applied Psychological Resources.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, C., & Lavish, L. A. (2006). Career assessment with native Americans: Role salience and career decision making self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 14, 116–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cantril, H., & Allport, G. W. (1933). Recent application of the study of values. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 28, 259–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carruthers, T. E. (1968). Work values and chosen career: Note on a trial of an American work values inventory with British subjects. Occupational Psychology, 42, 11–117.Google Scholar
  13. Carter, R. T. (1991). Cultural values: A review of empirical research and implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 164–173.Google Scholar
  14. Coetsier, P., & Claes, R. (1990). Belang van levensrollen en waarden [Salience of life roles and values]. Oostende, Belgium: Infoservice.Google Scholar
  15. Colozzi, E. A. (2003). Depth-oriented values extraction–effective techniques. Career Development Quarterly, 52(2), 180–189.Google Scholar
  16. Cook, E. P. (1994). Role salience and multiple roles: A gender perspective. Career Development Quarterly, 43, 85–95.Google Scholar
  17. Crace, R. K., & Brown, D. (2002a). Life values inventory: A values assessment guide for successful living. Williamsburg, VA: Applied Psychological Resources.Google Scholar
  18. Crace, R. K., & Brown, D. (2002b). Life values inventory: Understanding your values. Williamsburg, VA: Applied Psychological Resources.Google Scholar
  19. Dawis, R. V. (1990). Vocational interests, values, and preferences. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 833–871). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dawis, R. V. (1996). The theory of work adjustment and person-environment-correspondence counseling. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (3rd ed., pp. 75–120). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  21. Dawis, R. V. (2005). The Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (pp. 3–23). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Dawis, R. V., & Lofquist, L. H. (1984). A psychological theory of work adjustment. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  23. Doering, M., Rhodes, S. R., & Kaspin, J. (1988). Factor structure comparison of occupational needs and reinforcers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32(2), 127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dubin, R. (1956). Industrial workers’ worlds: A study of the “central life interests” of industrial workers. Social Problem, 3, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elizur, D. (1984). Facets of work values: A structural analysis of work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(3), 379–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Elizur, D., & Sagie, A. (1999). Facets of personal values: A structural analysis of life and work values. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 73–89.Google Scholar
  27. Elizur, D., Borg, I., Hunt, R., & Beck, I. M. (1991). The structure of work values: A cross cultural comparison. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feather, N. T. (1982). Reasons for entering medical school in relation to value priorities and sex of student. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 55, 119–128.Google Scholar
  29. Fitzgerald, L. F., & Betz, N. E. (1994). Career development in cultural context: The role of gender, race, class, and sexual orientation. In M. L. Savickas & K. W. Lent (Eds.), Convergence in career development theories: Implications for science and practice (pp. 103–117). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  30. Fitzsimmons, G. W., Macnab, D., & Casserly, C. (1986). Technical manual for the life roles inventory: Values and salience. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: PsiCan Consulting.Google Scholar
  31. Ginzberg, E., Ginsburg, S. W., Axelrad, S., & Herma, J. L. (1951). Occupational choice. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Greenhaus, J. H. (1973). A factorial investigation of career salience. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 3, 95–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gouws, D. J. (1995). The role concept in career development. In D. E. Super & B. Šverko (Eds.), Life roles, values, and careers: International findings of the work importance study (pp. 22–53). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  34. Hartung, P. J. (2002). Cultural context in career theory and practice: Role salience and values. Career Development Quarterly, 51, 12–25.Google Scholar
  35. Hartung, P. J. (2006). Values. In J. Greenhaus & G. Callanan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development (pp. 843–847). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Hoppock, R., & Super, D. E. (1950). Vocational and educational satisfaction. In D. H. Fryer & E. R. Henry (Eds.), Handbook of applied psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 126–134). New York: Reinhart.Google Scholar
  37. Jakob, P. E. (1957). Changing values in college. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  38. Kanchier, C., & Unruh, W. R. (1989). Work values: How do managers who change jobs differ from those who do not? Journal of Employment Counseling, 26, 107–116.Google Scholar
  39. Karpatschof, B., & Elkjær, H. K. (2000). Yet the bumblebee flies: The reliability of ipsative scoresexamined by empirical data and a simulation study. Research report. Copenhagen: Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  40. Katz, M. R. (1993). Computer-assisted career decision making: The guide in the machine. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Kerka, S. (2003). Career development of diverse populations. (Eric Digest, No. 249). Columbus, HO: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED482536).Google Scholar
  43. Kluckhohn, C. (1951). Values and value-orientations in the theory of action. In T. Parsons & E. Shils (Eds.), Toward a general theory of action (pp. 388–433). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Kopelman, R. E., Rovenpor, J. L., & Guan, M. (2003). The study of values: Construction of the fourth edition. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 203–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Krosnick, J. A., & Alwin, D. F. (1988). A test of the form-resistant correlation hypothesis: Ratings, rankings, and the measurement of values. Public Opinion Quarterly, 52(4), 526–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Langley, R. (1990). The Life Role Inventory (LRI): Manual. Pretoria, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council.Google Scholar
  47. Langley, R. (1995). The South African work importance study. In D. E. Super & B. Šverko (Eds.), Life roles, values, and careers: International findings of the work importance study (pp. 188–203). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  48. Langley, R., du Toit, R., & Herbst, D. L. (1992). Manual for the values scale. Pretoria, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council.Google Scholar
  49. Leong, F. T. L. (Ed.). (1995). Career development and vocational behavior of racial and ethnic minorities. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  50. Leung, A. S. (1995). Career development and counseling: A multicultural perspective. In J. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 549–566). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  51. Linton, R. (1936). The study of man. New York: Appleton-Century.Google Scholar
  52. Lodahl, T. M., & Kejner, M. (1965). The definition and measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49, 24–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lofquist, J. H., & Dawis, R. V. (1978). Values as second-order needs in the theory of work adjustment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 12–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lokan, J. (1989, November). Value attainment perceptions in work and leisure. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference, Adelaide.Google Scholar
  55. Maio, G. R., & Olson, J. M. (1998). Values as truisms: Evidence and implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 294–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Maio, G. R., Roese, N. J., Seligman, C., & Katz, A. (1996). Rankings, ratings, and the measurement of values: Evidence for the superior validity of ratings. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 18(2), 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCarty, J. A., & Shrum, L. J. (2000). The measurement of personal values in survey research: A test of alternative rating procedures. Public Opinion Quarterly, 24, 271–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Meglino, B. M., & Ravlin, E. C. (1998). Individual values in organizations: Concepts, controversies, and research. Journal of Management, 24(3), 351–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miller, C. H. (1956). Occupational choice and values. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 35, 244–246.Google Scholar
  61. Mumford, M. D., Connelly, M. S., Helton, W. B., Van Doorn, J. R., & Osburn, H. K. (2002). Alternative approaches for measuring values: Direct and indirect assessments in performance prediction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 348–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nevill, D. D., & Super, D. E. (1986a). The values scale: Theory, application, and research (Manual). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  63. Nevill, D. D., & Super, D. E. (1986b). The salience inventory: Theory, application, and research (Manual). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  64. Nevill, D. D., & Super, D. E. (1989). Manual to the values scale. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.Google Scholar
  65. Newcomb, T. M. (1950). Social psychology. New York: Dryden.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ng, S. H. (1982). Choosing between ranking and rating procedures for the comparison of values across cultures. European Journal of Social Psychology, 12, 169–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Niles, S. G., & Goodnough, G. E. (1996). Life-role salience and values: A review of recent research. Career Development Quarterly, 45, 65–84.Google Scholar
  68. Niles, S. G., Herr, E. L., & Hartung, P. J. (2001). Achieving life balance: Myths, realities, and developmental perspective. Columbus, OH: Center on Education and Training for Employment, Center Publications. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED458420.Google Scholar
  69. Oishi, S., Schimmack, U., Diener, E., & Suh, F. M. (1998). The measurement of values and individualism-colectivism. Pesonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(11), 1177–1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Oishi, S., Hahn, J., Schimmack, U., Radhakrishan, P., Dzokoto, V., & Ahadi, S. (2005). The measurement of values across cultures: A pairwise comparison approach. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 299–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Parsons, T. (1951). The social system. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  72. Peng, K., Nisbett, R. E., & Wong, N. Y. C. (1997). Validity problems comparing values across cultures and possible solutions. Psychological Methods, 2, 351–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Perrone, K. M., & Civiletto, C. L. (2004). The impact of life role salience on life satisfaction. Journal of Employment Counseling, 41, 105–116.Google Scholar
  74. Pryor, R. (1981). Tracing the development of the work aspect preference scale. Australian Psychologist, 1(2), 1981.Google Scholar
  75. Pryor, R. G. L. (1983). Work aspect preference scale. Hawthorn, Victoria: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  76. Pryor, R.G. L. (1999). Work aspect preference scale (2nd ed.). Sydney, Australia: Congruence.Google Scholar
  77. Rankin, W. L., & Grube, J. W. (1980). A comparison of the ranking and rating procedure for value system measurement. European Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ritov, I., & Baron, J. (1999). Protected values and omission bias. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 79(2), 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Roe, R. A., & Ester, P. (1999). Values and work: Empirical findings and theoretical perspective. Applied Psychologhy: An International Review, 48(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  81. Rokeach, M. (1979). From individual to institutional values: With special reference to the values of science. In M. Rokeach (Ed.), Understanding human values: Individual and Societal (pp. 47–70). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  82. Ros, M., Schwartz, S. H., & Surkiss, S. (1999). Basic individual values, work values, and meaning of work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 49–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rosenberg, M. (1957). Occupations and values. Glencoe, IL.: Free Press.Google Scholar
  84. Rounds, J. B. (1990). The comparative and combined utility of work value and interest data in career counseling with adults. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37, 32–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rounds, J. B., Henly, G. A., Dawis, R. V., Lofquist, L. H., & Weiss, D. J. (1981). Manual for the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire: A measure of needs and values. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
  86. Rounds, J. B., Dawis, R. V., & Lofquist, L. H. (1987). Measurement of person-environment fit and prediction of satisfaction in the theory of work adjustment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31, 297–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 1–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schwartz, S. H. (1996). Value priorities and behavior: Applying a theory of integrated value systems. In C. Seligman, J. M. Olson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The psychology of values: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 8, pp. 1–24). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  90. Schwartz, S. H. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology: An International Rewiev, 48, 23–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1987). Toward the universal content and structure of values: Extension and cross-cultural replications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 550–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1990). Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values, extension and cross-cultural replications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(5), 878–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Simpson, R. L., & Simpson, I. H. (1960). Values, personal influence, and occupational choice. Social Forces, 39, 116–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Spokane, A. R., Meir, I. E., & Catalano, M. (2000). Person-environment congruence and Hollands theory: A review and reconsideration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57, 147–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Spranger, E. (1928). Types of men. New York: Stechert-Hafner.Google Scholar
  96. Stone, C. H. (1933). The personality factor in vocational guidance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 28, 274–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stulman, D. A., & Dawis, R. V. (1976). Experimental validation of two MIQ scales. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 9(2), 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Super, D. E. (1957). The psychology of careers. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  99. Super, D. E. (1970). The work values inventory. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  100. Super, D. E. (1973). The work values inventory. In D. G. Zytowski (Ed.), New approaches to interest measurement (pp. 189–205). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  101. Super, D. E. (1980). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 16, 282–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Super, D. E. (1981). The relative importance of work. Bulletin-AIOSP, 37/81, 26–36.Google Scholar
  103. Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (2nd ed., pp. 197–261). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  104. Super, D. E. (1995). Values: Their nature, assessment, and practical use. In D. E. Super & B. Šverko (Eds.), Life roles, values, and careers: International findings of the work importance study (pp. 54–61). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  105. Super, D. E., & Šverko, B. (Eds.). (1995). Life roles, values, and careers: International findings of the work importance study. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  106. Super, D. E., Crites, J. O., Hummel, R. C., Moser, H. P., Overstreet, P. L., & Warnath, C. F. (1957). Vocational development: A framework for research. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  107. Super, D. E., Savickas, M. L., & Super, C. M. (1996). The life-span, life-space approach to careers. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (3rd ed., pp. 121–178). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  108. Super, D. E., Osborne, W. L., Walsh, D. J., Brown, S. D., & Niles, S. G. (2001). Developmental career assessment and counseling: The C-DAC model. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71, 74–82.Google Scholar
  109. Šverko, B. (1984). Važnost rada u životu pojedinca: Prilog evaluaciji jednog kognitivnog modela [Importance of work in the life of an individual: Contribution to evaluation of a cognitive model]. Psihologija, 17(3), 48–60.Google Scholar
  110. Šverko, B. (1987). The structure of work values: A cross-national comparison. Acta Instituti Psychologici Universitatis Zagrabiensis, 17, 23–29.Google Scholar
  111. Šverko, B. (1989). Origin of individual differences in importance attached to work: A model and a contribution to its evaluation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 34, 28–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Šverko, B. (1995). The structure and hierarchy of values viewed cross-nationally. In D. E. Super & B. Šverko (Eds.), Life roles, values, and careers: International findings of the work importance study (pp. 225–240). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  113. Šverko, B. (2006). Super’s career development theory. In J. Greenhaus & G. Callanan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development (pp. 789–792). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  114. Šverko, B., & Vizek-Vidovic, V. (1995). Studies of the meaning of work: Approaches, models, and some of the findings. In D. E. Super & B. Šverko (Eds.), Life roles, values, and careers: International findings of the Work Importance Study (pp. 3–21). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  115. Šverko, B., Jerneić, Z., Kulenović, A., & Vizek-Vidović, V. (1987). Work values of students preparing for different occupations: A contribution to validation of the VIS Values Scale. Revija za Psihologiju, 17(1–2), 59–66.Google Scholar
  116. Thompson, B., Levitov, J. E., & Miederhoff, P. A. (1982). Validity of the research value survey. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 42, 899–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Transberg, M., Slane, S., & Ekeberg, S. E. (1993). The relationship between interest congruence and satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 42, 253–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Trentini, G. (1995). Life roles and values in Italy: Some results of the work importance study. In D. E. Super & B. Šverko (Eds.), Life roles, values, and careers: International findings of the work importance study (pp. 160–169). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  119. Triandis, H. C. (1994). Culture and social behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  120. Tsabari, O., Tziner, A., & Meir, I. (2005). Updated meta-analysis on the relationship between congruence and E satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(2), 216–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vernon, P. E., & Allport, G. W. (1931). The test of personal values. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 26, 231–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Watson, M. B., & Stead, G. B. (1990). Work-role salience of South African adolescents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wehrly, B., Kenney, K. R., & Kenney, M. E. (1999). Counseling multiracial families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  124. Zytowski, D. G. (1970). The concept of work values. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 18, 176–186.Google Scholar
  125. Zytowski, D. G. (1994). A Super contribution to vocational theory: Work values. The Career Development Quarterly, 43, 25–31.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Branimir Šverko
    • 1
  • Toni Babarović
    • 1
  • Iva Šverko
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations