Solid-State Chemistry

  • Bradley D. Fahlman


Of the three states of matter, solids possess the most structural diversity. Whereas gases and liquids consist of discrete molecules that are randomly distributed due to thermal motion, solids consist of molecules, atoms, or ions that are statically positioned. To fully understand the properties of solid materials, one must have a thorough knowledge of the structural interactions between the subunit atoms, ions, and molecules. This chapter will outline the various types of solids, including structural classifications and nomenclature for both crystalline and amorphous solids. The material in this key chapter will set the groundwork for the rest of this textbook, which describes a variety of materials classes.


Fuel Cell Crystal Lattice Point Group Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interstitial Site 
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References and Notes

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    A supercritical fluid has intermediate properties of liquid and gas. Typically, the alcogel is placed in an autoclave filled with ethanol. The system is pressurized to 750-850 psi with CO2 and cooled to 5-10C. Liquid CO2 is then flushed through the vessel until all the ethanol has been removed from the vessel and from within the gels. When the gels are ethanol-free, the vessel is heated to a temperature above the critical temperature of CO2 (31C). As the vessel is heated, the pressure of the system rises. The pressure of CO2 is carefully monitored to maintain a pressure slightly above the critical pressure of CO2 (1050 psi). The system is held at these conditions for a short time, followed by the slow, controlled release of CO2 to ambient pressure. The length of time required for this process is dependent on the thickness of the gels; this process may last anywhere from 12 h to 6 days.Google Scholar
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    The γ-Al2 O3 crystal structure is best described as a defect spinel structure; an FCC array of O2− ions, with Al3+ ions in 21 3 of the 16 octahedral and eight tetrahedral sites. By contrast, α-Al2 O3 is an HCP array of O2− , with Al3+ in 2/3 of the octahedral sites.Google Scholar
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    Asphalt is a black, sticky, viscous liquid that is obtained from crude petroleum. It comprises almost entirely a form of tar called bitumen. The structure of asphalt is actually a colloidal suspension, with small particulates called asphaltenes dispersed through the petroleum matrix. More environmentally friendly aqueous-based asphalt emulsions are currently being used for road repair applications.Google Scholar
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Further Reading

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    Pogge, H. B. Electronic Materials Chemistry, Marcel-Dekker: New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Glusker, J. P.; Lewis, M.; Rossi, M. Crystal Structure Analysis for Chemists and Biologists, VCH: New York, 1994.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Larminie, J.; Dicks, A. Fuel Cell Systems Explained, 2nd ed., Wiley: New York, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    West, A. R. Solid State Chemistry and Its Applications, Wiley: New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    West, A. R. Basic Solid State Chemistry, 2nd ed., Wiley: New York, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moore, E.; Smart, L. Solid State Chemistry: An Introduction, 2nd ed., CRC Press: New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hurd, C. M. Electrons in Metals, Wiley: New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elliott, S. The Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Wiley: New York, 1998.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley D. Fahlman
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Michigan UniversityMount PleasantUSA

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