Advertisement

Size, morphological and chemical characterization of aerosols polluting the Beijing atmosphere in January/February 2005

  • Stefan Norra
  • B Hundt
  • Doris Stüben
  • K Cen
  • C Liu
  • V Dietze
  • E Schultz
Part of the Alliance For Global Sustainability Bookseries book series (AGSB, volume 12)

One of the most air-polluted cities in the world is Beijing, where PM2.5 was sampled on filters by a mini-volume sampler (200 L h-1) and coarse particles on collection plates by means of the passive sampler Sigma-2. From 15 January to 5 February 2005, sampling was carried out in two modes, by collecting particles over periods of several days separated in day and night samples, and alternately during night and daytime in intervals of 12 h. The sampling site was located in north-west of Beijing. Automated microscopic image analysis of coarse particles showed significantly differing size distributions of particle fractions between 3 and 100 μm for day and night samples. The different size distributions could be attributed to varying conditions of atmospheric dispersion and particularities due to local traffic. Elemental carbon containing particles accounted for 10% to 30% of total coarse particles. Scanning electron microprobe analyses identified a wide range of different anthropogenic and geogenic particles. Average PM2.5 concentration during daytime was about 75μg m-3 in the first, 200 μg m-3 in the second, and 64 μg m-3 in the third week. Peaks of daily PM2.5 concentrations reached more than 300 μg m-3 in the second week. Trace metals such as Pb, As, Cu, and Zn showed similar temporal courses. Several different sources of aerosols were identified by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Backward trajectories indicated that highly polluted air masses reaching Beijing during the second week were advected from south. These air masses passed with low velocities industrial areas in the south and the whole city before reaching the sampling site, whereas air masses entering Beijing during the first and third week came from less industrialized regions in the north. Due to the specific spatial distribution of air pollution sources in the area of Beijing, trajectories could provide a simple approach to an air pollution forecast

Keywords

Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry Dust Storm Coarse Particle Atmos Environ Collection Plate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Pearce D, Crowards T (1996) Particulate matter and human health in the United Kingdom. Energ Policy 24:609-619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    BMU (2005) Feinstaub. Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit. BerlinGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lall R, Kendall M, Ito K, Thurston GD (2004) Estimation of historical annual PM2.5 exposures for health effects assessment. Atmos Environ 38:5217-5226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    VDI 2119-4 (1997) Messung partikelförmiger Niederschläge, mikroskopische Unterscheidung und größenfraktionierte Bestimmung der Partikeldeposition auf haftfolienb, Probenahmegerät Sigma-2Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schultz E (1993) Size-fractionated measurement of coarse black carbon parti-cles in deposition samples. Atmos Environ 27A:1241-1249Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hundt B (2005) Geochemische Untersuchungen von Stäuben aus Peking sowie Identifikation der Aersolbelastungsquellen. Unpublished diploma thesis, Insti-tute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Universität KarlsruheGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maynard RL (2001) Particulate air pollution. In: Brimblecombe P, Maynard RL (eds.) The urban atmosphere and its effects. Imperial College Press, Danvers, pp 163-194Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schultz E, Alessandro M, Endlicher W (1999) A two years air pollution sur-vey in Gran Mendoza, Argentina-analysis, spatial distribution and seasonal variations of traffic related pollutants. MERIDIANO-Revista de Geografia 7:102-118Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ito K, Xue N, Thurston G (2004) Spatial variation of PM2.5 chemical species and source-apportioned mass concentration in New York City. Atmos Environ 38:5269-5282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    He K, Yang F, Ma Y, Zhang Q, Yao X, Chan CK, Cadle S, Chan T, Mulawa P (2001) The characteristics of PM2.5 in Beijing, China. Atmos Environ 35:4959-4970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zheng M, Salmon LG, Schauer JJ, Zeng L, Kiang CS, Zhang Y, Cass GR (2005) Seasonal trends in PM2.5 source contributions in Beijing, China. Atmos Environ 39:3867-3976Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Norra
    • 1
  • B Hundt
    • 1
  • Doris Stüben
    • 1
  • K Cen
    • 2
  • C Liu
    • 2
  • V Dietze
    • 3
  • E Schultz
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Mineralogy and GeochemistryUniversität Karlsruhe (TH)Germany
  2. 2.Institute of GeochemistryChina University of GeosciencesChina
  3. 3.German Weather ServiceGermany

Personalised recommendations