Temporal Trends of Non-sea Salt Sulfate and Nitrate in Wet Deposition in Japan
Temporal trends of non-sea salt (nss-) sulfate and nitrate were analyzed from nationwide precipitation chemistry measurements provided by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) for the 1988–2002 fiscal years (April–March). The concentrations and deposition of nss-sulfate were found to be decreasing, and those of nitrate were stable or slightly increasing at most sites. These deposition trends were discussed from the viewpoint of emissions of SO2 and NOX during the period of interest. Because monitoring techniques have changed in the number of active sites, samplers, and analytical methods during the operation period, the median of all annual depositions measured in Japan in a specific year was selected as the annual representative. The contribution of specific emission sources was also calculated for 1990 on the basis of the nss-sulfate and nitrate deposition in Japan obtained with a model simulation in which the model did not include volcanic emissions from Mt. Oyama, Miyakejima Island, which began to erupt suddenly and violently in 2000. For nss-sulfate, the calculated deposition agrees well with the intensity and trends of the median up to 1999. After 2000, a higher deposition than calculated in the preceding years was evident, which is attributable to the volcanic SO2 from Mt. Oyama. For nitrate, both the calculated and observed depositions were slightly increasing; however, the calculation was found to exceed the observation.
KeywordsAcid deposition Temporal trend Sulfate Nitrate Long-range transport
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