Effect of Tilemsi phosphate rock-solubilizing microorganisms on phosphorus uptake and yield of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Mali
With the broad aim of biologically improving P uptake by wheat fertilized with Tilemsi phosphate rock (TPR), we investigated the effect of inoculation with TPR-solubilizing microorganisms isolated from Malian soils and with a commercial isolate of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices (Gi). AM root length colonization, and growth yield and P concentration of the cultivar Tetra of wheat were measured under field conditions in Mali. Experimental plots were established in Koygour (Diré) during the 2001–2002 cropping season. Inoculation treatments included two fungal isolates, Aspergillus awamori (C1) and Penicillium chrysogenum (C13), and an isolate of Pseudomonas sp. (BR2), used alone or in fungus-bacterium combinations in the presence or absence of the AM fungus Gi. In fertilized treatments, 0 or 30 kg P ha−1 was applied as TPR or diammonium phosphate (DAP). In 45-day-old wheat plants, the highest root length AM colonization (62%) was observed with TPR fertilized wheat inoculated with Gi and BR2. Our results suggest that BR2 is a mycorrhizal-helper bacteria and a good plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In fact, inoculation of wheat Tetra fertilized with TPR with a combination of Gi, BR2 and C1 produced the best grain yield with the highest P concentration. This work shows that by inoculating seeds with TPR-solubilizing microorganisms and AM fungi under field conditions in Mali it is possible to obtain wheat grain yields comparable to those produced by using the expensive DAP fertilizer.
Key wordsAspergillus awamori Glomus intraradices Plant growth promotion Penicillium chrysogenum Pseudomonas sp. Triticum aestivum
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