Effects of total inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus availability on Maize Yields in the First post Tephrosia vogeliifallow

  • C.Z. Mkangwa
  • S.M.S. Maliondo
  • J.M.R. Semoka
Conference paper

Abstract

A field experiment assessing the effects of natural and T. vogelii fallows and Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) on total inorganic N, Pi-P and maize grain yield was conducted for 26 months in acidic, N and P deficient Ferralsol. In the first 22 months, natural and T. vogelii fallows were established, with the latter amended with either 0 or 80 kg P ha-1 as MPR at planting. Subsequent to the fallows, maize was planted on plots treated with natural fallow, T. vogelii biomass, T. vogelii biomass co-applied with MPR, T. vogelii biomass pre-applied with MPR at T. vogelii establishment, Sulphate of Ammonia alone or co-applied with either MPR or TSP. Total inorganic N concentrations were monitored at planting and at vegetative and silking maize growth stages, whereas Pi-P was determined once at silkirg. Initially, total inorganic N concentrations were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) higher in plots amended with T. vogelii biomass, with significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) highest values in plots treated with MPR at establishment of T. vogelii fallows. During vegetative and silking growth stages, total inorganic N concentrations were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) higher in S/A treated plots. The Pi-P concentrations were significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) increased in plots amended with MPR, TSP and T. vogelii fallow biomass. Maize grain yield was significantly increased by T. vogelii fallow biomass applied alone or co-applied with MPR at maize planting, but significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) highest yield was obtained in plots that were treated with MPR at T. vogelii fallow establishment. Application of MPR to T. vogelii at planting is a better strategy for improvement of total inorganic N, Pi-P and maize grain yield in acidic, N and P deficient Ferralsols

Keywords

maize grain yield Minjingu phosphate rock Tephrosia vogelii Pi-P total inorganic-N 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. de Jager A., Karuiku I., Matiri F.M., Odendo M. and Wanyama J.H. 1998. Monitoring nutrient flows and economic performance in African farming systems (NUTMON). IV. Linking nutrient balances and economic performance in three districts of Kenya. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 71: 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Drechsel P., Steiner K.G. and Hagedorn F. 1996. A review on the potential of improved fallows and green manure in Rwanda. Agroforestry Systems 33: 109–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Eswaran H., Almaraz R., van den Berg E. and Reich P. 1997. An assessment of the soil resources of Africa in relation to productivity. Geoderma 77: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. FAO 2001. Lecture notes on the major soils of the world. World Soil Resources Reports No. 94. ISRIC, ITC, CUL, WAU, FAO, Rome, Italy. pp. 155–161.Google Scholar
  5. Gichuru M.P. 1991. Residual effects of natural bush, Cajanus cajan and Tephrosia candida on the productivity of an acid soil in south-eastern Nigeria. Plant and Soil 134: 31–36.Google Scholar
  6. Gruhn P., Goletti F. and Yudelman M. 2000. Integrated Nutrient Management, Soil Fertility and Sustainable Agriculture: Current Issues and Future Challenges.Google Scholar
  7. Hagedorn F., Steiner K.G., Sekayange L. and Zech W. 1997. Effect of rainfall pattern on N mineralization and leaching in a greenhouse experiment in Rwanda. Plant and Soil 195: 365–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Handayanto E., Cadisch G. and Giller K.E. 1994. Nitrogen release from prunings of legume hedgerow trees in relation to quality of the prunings and incubation method. Plant and Soil 160: 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mnkeni P.N.S., Semoka J.M.R. and Buganga J.B.B. 1991. Effectiveness of Minjingu Phosphate rock as a source of phosphorous for maize in some soils at Morogoro, Tanzania. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research 29: 27–37.Google Scholar
  10. Mutuo P.K., Smithson P.C., Buresh R.J. and Okalebo R.J. 1999. Comparison of Phosphate rock and Triple Superphosphate on a Phosphorus-Deficient Kenyan Soil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 30: 1091–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Niang A., Gathumbi S. and Amadalo B. 1996. The potential of short-duration improved fallow for crop productivity enhancement in the highlands of Western Kenya. In:Proceedings of the 1stKenya National Agroforestry Conference on People and Institutional Participation in Agroforestry for sustainable development. (Edited by Mugah, J.O.). 3–8 May 1996, Nairobi Kenya. pp. 218–230.Google Scholar
  12. Okalebo J.R., Gathua K.W. and Woomer P.L. 2002. Laboratory Methods of Soil and Plant Analysis. A working manual. KARI, SSSEA, TSBF, UNESCO-ROSTA, Nairobi, Kenya. pp. 128.Google Scholar
  13. Oldeman L.R., Hakkeling R.T.A. and Sombroek W.G. 1992. World map status of human-induced soil degradation: an explanatory note, International Soil Reference Center, Wageningen. pp. 34.Google Scholar
  14. Prescott, C.E. (1997). Effect of clear cutting and alternative silvicultura systems on rates of decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in a costal montane coniferous forest. Forest Ecology and Management 95: 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sanchez P.A. 1994. Tropical soil fertility research: Toward the second paradigm. Inagural and State of the Art Conferences. Transactions 15th World Congress of Soil Science. 10–16 July 1994, Acapulco, Mexico. pp. 65–88.Google Scholar
  16. Sanchez P.A. 2002. Soil Fertility and Hunger. Science 295: 2019–2020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sanginga N., Dashiell K., Diels J., Vanlauwe O., Lyasse O., Carsky R.J., Tarawali S., Asafo-Adjei B., Menkir A., Schulz S., Keatinge D. and Rodomiro O. 2003. Sustainable management coupled to resilient germplasm to provide new intensive cereal-grain legume-livestock systems in the savanna. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, In press.Google Scholar
  18. Soil Survey Staff 1999. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. Agency for International Development, United States Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Conservation Service, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. pp. 328.Google Scholar
  19. Warren G.P., Atwal S.S. and Irungu J.W. 1997. Soil nitrate variations under grass, sorghum and bare fallow in semi-arid Kenya. Exploratory Agriculture 33: 321–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • C.Z. Mkangwa
    • 1
  • S.M.S. Maliondo
    • 2
  • J.M.R. Semoka
    • 3
  1. 1.Agricultural Research Institute IlongaKilosa
  2. 2.Department of Forest BiologyTanzania
  3. 3.Department of Soil ScienceSokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania

Personalised recommendations