Chapter 2 describes ways in which the increasing human population has altered the natural coastal environment. The loss of species and habitat due to human exploitation led to the development of the nature conservation movement, not just for coastal areas but more generally. Initially the conservation of species and habitats was the concern of scientists, naturalists and others interested in nature. Conservation often meant ‘preservation’ of the environment and natural resources. The cornerstone of the nature conservation effort was the selection of ‘protected’ sites, using criteria designed to identify the most valuable natural or semi-natural assets, normally in terms of habitats and species. Once established and boundaries drawn, the sites became ‘sacrosanct’. Their future conservation rested on the prevention of loss and damage from harmful human developments. Where change occurred, which resulted in the original nature conservation values deteriorating, management formed a key part of the conservation strategy.
KeywordsEuropean Union Coastal Habitat Integrate Coastal Zone Management Tidal Land Coastal Squeeze
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