Advertisement

Breeding for Drought and Salt Tolerant Rice (Oryza Sativa L.): Progress and Perspectives

  • Zhi-Kang Li
  • Jian-Long Xu

Abstract

Water shortage and salinity are the most important factors limiting rice production worldwide. No drought tolerant (DT) or salt tolerance (ST) rice varieties have been commercially released in the past, due largely to the lack of breeding efforts and partially to the complexity of genetics and physiology underlying DT/ST in rice. The real challenge facing plant breeders is how to efficiently develop high yield and DT or ST cultivars for varied stress scenarios of different rice ecosystems. Progress has been recently made in developing DT/ST rice cultivars using the conventional breeding approach at IRRI and hybrid rice cultivars tend to show high yield potential and good levels of water use efficiency or DT. Tremendous QTL mapping efforts in the past decade have identified numerous QTLs affecting DT/ST in rice, but the results have not let to any successful MAS. A new and promising strategy combining BC breeding with designed QTL pyramiding have been practiced at IRRI and in China, in which exploiting useful genetic diversity for DT/ST from the primary gene pool of rice by BC breeding and developing DT/ST introgression lines in elite genetic backgrounds, discovery, allelic mining and characterization of QTL networks for DT/ST, and directed trait improvement by designed QTL pyramiding are well designed and integrated. Many promising DT and ST rice lines have been developed using this strategy, even though the theoretical aspects underlying this strategy remain to be fully established

Keywords

QTL pyramiding allelic mining introgression lines backcross breeding drought and salinity tolerance yield rice 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adorada DL, RD Mendoza, and GB Gregorio. 2004. Agronomic characterization of saline-tolerant elite breeding lines with multiple tolerance for abiotic stresses, in PBGB 2003 Annual Report, p. 29, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  2. Akbar M, and FN Ponnamperuma. 1982. Saline soils of South and Southeast Asia as potential rice lands. In Rice Research Strategies for the Future. IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines. pp. 265–281Google Scholar
  3. Akbar M, and T Yabuno. 1974. Breeding for saline-resistant varieties of rice. II. Comparative performance of some rice varieties to salinity during early development stage. Jap. J. Breed. 25:176–181Google Scholar
  4. Akbar M, GS Khush and D Hillerislambers. 1985. Genetics of Salt Tolerance. In: Rice Genetics, IRRI, Philippines, pp. 399–409Google Scholar
  5. Ali AJ, JL Xu, AM Ismail, BY Fu, CHM Vijaykumar, YM Gao, J Domingo, R Maghirang, SB Yu, G Gregorio, S Yanaghihara, M Cohen, B Carmen, D Mackill, ZK Li. 2006. Hidden diversity for abiotic and biotic stress tolerances in the primary gene pool of rice revealed by a large backcross breeding program. Field Crops Research 97: 66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ali ML, MS Pathan, J Zhang, G Bai, S Sarkarung, HT Nguyen. 2000. Mapping QTLs for root traits in a recombinant inbred population from two indicaecotypes in rice. Theor Appl Genet 101:756–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atlin G, P Virk, SS Virmani, and M Amante. 2004. Identification of drought-tolerant genotypes for shallow rainfed lowland production, 2003 Annual Report of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biotechnology Division, pp. 18–19, the International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, The PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  8. Babu RC, BD Nguyen, V Chamarerk, P Shanmugasundaram, P Chezhian, P Jeyaprakash, SK Ganesh, A Palchamy, S Sadasivam, S Sarkarung, LJ Wade and HT Nguyen. 2003. Genetic analysis of drought resistance in rice by molecular markers: association between secondary traits and field performance. Crop Sci. 43:1457–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Babu RC, MS Pathan, A Blum, and HT Nguyen. 1999. Comparison of Measurement Methods of Osmotic Adjustment in Rice Cultivars. Crop Sci. 39:150–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Babu RC, HE Shashidhar, JM Lilley, ND Thanh, JD Ray, S Sadasivam, S Sarkarung, JC O’Toole and HT Nguyen. 2001. Variation in root penetration ability, osmotic adjustment and dehydration tolerance among accessions of rice adapted to rainfed lowland and upland ecosystems. Plant Breeding 120:233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blumwald E. 2000. Sodium transport and salt tolerance in plant cells. Curr. Opin. Cell Bidi. 12:431–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonilla P, J Dvorak, D Mackill, K Deal, and G Gregorio. 2002. RFLP and SSLP mapping of salinity tolerance genes in chromosome 1 of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using recombinant inbred lines. Philippine Journal of Agricultural Science 85:68–76Google Scholar
  13. Bouman BAM, and RP Tuong. 2001. Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigated rice. Agricultural Water Management 49(1):11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Champoux MC, G Wang, S Sarkarung, DJ Mackill, JC O’Toole, N Huang and SR McCouch. 1995. Locating genes associated with root morphology and drought avoidance in rice via linkage to molecular markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 90:969–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chaubey CN, and D Senadhira. 1994. Conventional plant breeding for tolerance to problem soils. In: AR Yeo and TJ Flowers (eds) Soil fylineral stresses: Approaches to Crop Improvement. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 11–29Google Scholar
  16. Courtois B, G McLaren, PK Sinha, K Prasad, R Yadav and L Shen. 2000. Mapping QTLs associated with drought avoidance in upland rice. Molecular Breeding 6:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cruz RT, and JC O’Toole. 1984. Dry land rice response to an irrigation gradient at flowering stage. Agron J 76: 178–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dingkuhn M, RT Cruz, JC O’Toole, K Doerffling. 1989. Net photosynthesis, water use efficiency, leaf water potential, and leaf rolling as affected by water stress in tropical upland rice. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 40:1171–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Epstein E, JD Nbrlyn, DW Ruh, RW Kingsbury, DB Kelly, and GA Cunningham. 1980. Saline culture of crops; a genetic approach. Science 210: 399–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fang XW, LH Tang, and YP Wang. 2004 Identification of rice germplasm tolerant to salt stress. J. Plant Genetic Resources 5(3): 295–298Google Scholar
  21. Flowers TJ, ML Koyama, SA Flowers, C Sudhakar, KP Singh, and AR Yeo. 2000. QTL: their place in engineering tolerance of rice to salinity. Journal of Experimental Botany/the Society or Experimental Biology 51(342): 99–106Google Scholar
  22. Fukai S, M Cooper. 1995. Development of drought-resistant cultivars using physio- morphological traits in rice. Field Crops Res. 40: 67–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fukuda A, A Nakamura, Y Tanaka. 1999. Molecular cloning and expression of the Na+/H+ exchanger gene in Oryza sativa. Biochim Biophys Acta 1446: 149–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gao YM, BY Fu, R Lafitte, TQ Zheng, JL Xu, CHM Vijayakumar, YZ Jiang, MF Zhao, SB Yu, D Dwivedi, J Domingo, J Ali, R Maghirang, S Veruka, LH Zhu, J O’Toole, AH Paterson, HQ Zhai, GS Khush, JM Ribaut, and ZK Li 2007 Genome-wide response to selection and genetic basis of cryptic genetic variation of drought tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). (in preparation)Google Scholar
  25. Gong Ji-ming, He Ping, Qian Qian, Shen Li-shuang, Zhu Li-huang, Chen Sou-yi. 1998. QTL mapping of salt tolerance in rice. Chinese Science Bulletin (17):1847–1850Google Scholar
  26. Greenway H. 1973. Salinity, plant growth and metabolism. Journal of Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 39: 24–34Google Scholar
  27. Greenway H, and R Munns. 1980. Mechanism of salt tolerance in non-halophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 31: 149–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gregorio GB, D Senadhira, RD Mendoza. 1997. Screening rice for salinity tolerance. IRRI, Los Banos, Laguna, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  29. Gregorio GB, D Senadhira, RD Mendoza, NL Manigbas, JP Roxas, CQ Guerta. 2002. Progress in breeding for salinity tolerance and associated abiotic stresses in rice. Field Crops Research 76: 91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gregorio GB, and D Senadhira. 1993. Genetic analysis of salinity tolerance in rice. Theor. AppJ. Gen. 86:333–338Google Scholar
  31. Gu Xing-you, Mei Man-tong, Yan Xiao-long, Zherng Shao-ling, Lu Yong-gen. 2000. Preliminary detection of quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance in rice. Chinese J Rice Sci 14 (2):65–70.Google Scholar
  32. Guo Yan, Chen Shaolin, Zhang Gengyun, Chen Shouyi. 1997. Effect gene were obtained by cell engineering technique. Acta Genetica Sinica 24(2): 122–126Google Scholar
  33. Lafitte HR, CHM Vijayakumar, YM Gao, Y Shi, JL Xu, BY Fu, SB Yu, AJ Ali, J Domingo, R Maghirang, R Torres, D Mackill and ZK Li. 2006. Improvement of rice drought tolerance through backcross breeding: evaluation of donors and results from drought nurseries. Field Crops Research 97:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haque MM, DJ Mackill and T Ingram. 1992. Inheritance of leaf epicuticular wax content in rice. Crop Sci 32: 865–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hemamalini GS, HE Shashidhar, S Hittalmani. 2000. Molecular marker assisted tagging of root morphological traits under two contrasting moisture regimes at peak vegetative stage in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Euphytica 112: 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jeschke WD, and W Hartung, 2000. Root-shoot interactions in mineral nutrition. Plant Soil 226: 310–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kamoshita A, J Wade, L Ali, S Pathan, J Zhang, SS arkarung, T Nguyen. 2002a. Mapping QTLs for root morphology of a rice population adapted to rainfed lowland conditionsTheor Appl Genet. 104(5):880–893Google Scholar
  38. Kamoshita A, J Zhang, J Siopongco, S Sarkarung, HT Nguyen, LJ Wade. 2002b. Effects of phenotyping environment on identification of quantitative trait loci for rice root morphology under anaerobic conditions. Crop Sci. 42(1):255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khush GS. 1999. Green revolution: preparing for the 21st century. Genome 42: 646–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Khush GS. 2001. Green revolution: the way forward. Nat Rev Genet. 2: 815–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Koyama ML, A Levesley, RMD. Koebner, TJ Flowers, AR Yeo. 2001. Quantitative Trait Loci for Component Physiological Traits Determining Salt Tolerance in Rice. Plant Physiol 125:406–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lafitte HR, B Courtois, M Arraudeau. 2002. Genetic improvement of rice in aerobic systems: progress from yield to genes. Field Crops Res. 75:171–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lafitte HR, B Courtois. 2000. Genetic variation in performance under reproductive stage water deficit in a doubled-haploid rice population in upland fields. In: Ribaut JM, Poland D (eds) Molecular approaches for the genetic improvement of cereals for stable production in water-limited environments. A strategic planning workshop held on 21–25 June 1999. CIMMYT, El Batan, pp 97–102Google Scholar
  44. Lafitte HR, AH Price, B Courtois. 2004. Yield response to water deficit in an upland rice mapping population: associations among traits and genetic markers. Theor Appl Genet. 109(6):1237–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lafitte HR, B Courtois. 2002. Interpreting cultivar – environment interactions for yield in upland rice: assigning value to drought-adaptive traits. Crop Sci. 42, 1409–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lanceras JC, G Pantuwan, B Jongdee, T Toojinda. 2004. Quantitative trait loci associated with drought tolerance at reproductive stage in rice. Plant Physiol 135:384–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lang NT, S Masood, S Yanagihara, BC Buu. 2003. Mapping QTLs for salt tolerance in rice. In: Khush GS, DS Brar, B Hardy. Advances in Rice Genetics. Supplement to Rice Genetics IV. Proceedings of the Fourth International Rice Genetics Symposium, 22-27 October 2000. Los Banos, Philippines. International Rice Research Institute. pp. 294–298Google Scholar
  48. Lee M. 1995. DNA markers and plant breeding programs. Advances in Agronomy 55:265–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li ZK, BY Fu, YM Gao, JL Xu, J Ali, HR Lafitte, YZ Jiang, JD Rey, CHM Vijayakumar, R Maghirang, TQ Zheng and LH Zhu. 2005. Genome-wide introgression lines and a forward genetics strategy for functional genomic research of complex phenotypes in rice. Plant Molecular Biology 59:33–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Li Z, LS Shen, B Courtois, R Lafitte. 2000. Development of nearisogenic introgression line (NIIL) sets for QTLs associated with drought tolerance in rice. In: Ribaut JM, Poland D (eds) Molecular approaches for the genetic improvement of cereals for stable production in water-limited environments. A strategic planning workshop held on 21–25 June 1999. CIMMYT, El Batan, pp 103–107Google Scholar
  51. Li ZK, BY Fu, YM Gao, JL Xu, J Ali, HR Lafitte, YZ Jiang, JD Rey, CHM Vijayakumar, R Maghirang, TQ Zheng and LH Zhu. 2005. Genome-wide introgression lines and a forward genetics strategy for functional genomic research of complex phenotypes in rice. Plant Molecular Biology 59:33–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lilley JM, and MM Ludlow. 1996. Expression of osmotic adjustment and dehydration tolerance in diverse rice lines. Field Crops Res. 48: 185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lilley JM, MM Ludlow, SR McCouch, MC Champoux and JC O’Toole. 1996. Locating QTL for osmotic adjustment and dehydration tolerance in rice. J. Expt Bot 47: 1427–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lin HX, MZ Zhu, M Yano, JP Gao, ZW Liang, WA Su, XH Hu, ZH Ren, DY Chao. 2004. QTLs for Na+ and K+ uptake of the shoots and roots controlling rice salt tolerance. Theor Appl Genet 108(2):253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maas EV, and GJ Hoffman. 1977. Crop salt tolerance current assessment. ASCE J. Irrig. and Drainage Div. 103:115–134Google Scholar
  56. Mackill D, W Coffman, D Garrity. 1996. Rainfed Lowland Rice Improvement. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  57. Malcolm CV. 1969. Use of halophytes for forage production on saline wastelands. Journal of Australian Institute of Agricultural Sciences 35: 38–49Google Scholar
  58. Mishra B, M Akbar, DV Seshu, and D Senadhira. 1996. Genetics of salinity tolerance and ionic uptake in rice. IRRN 21:38–39Google Scholar
  59. Moeljopawiro S and H Ikehashi. 1981. Inheritance of salt tolerance in rice. Euphytica 30:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moncada MP, CP MartÃnez, J Tohme, E Guimaraes, M Chatel, J Borrero, H Gauch, and SR McCouch. 2001. Quantitative trait loci for yield and yield components in an Oryza sativa × Oryza rufipogon BC2F2 population evaluated in an upland environment. Theor Appl Genet 102:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Munns R, H Greenway and GO Kirst. 1983. Halotolerant eukaryotes: In: Physiological Plant Ecology. III. Responses to the Chemical and Biological Environment. Eds. O.L. Lange, P.S. Nobel, C.B Osmond and H. Zeigler. Encycl. Plant Physiol., New Series, Vol. 12C. Springer, Berlin. pp. 59–135Google Scholar
  62. Munns R, S Hussain, AR Rivelli, RA James, AG Condon, MP Lindsay, ES Lagudh, DP Schachtman and RA Hare. 2002. Avenues for increasing salt tolerance of crops, and the role of physiologically based selection traits. Plant and Soil 247: 93–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nguyen TTT, N Klueva, V Chamareck, A Aarti, G Magpantay, ACM Millena, MS Pathan, HT Nguyen. 2004. Saturation mapping of QTL regions and identification of putative candidate genes for drought tolerance in rice. Mol Gen Genomics 272: 35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Toole JC, and RT Cruz. 1983. Genotypic variation in epicuticular wax of rice. Crop Sci 23: 392–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pandey S, D Behura, R Villano, D Naik, 2000. Economic Cost of Drought and Farmers’ Coping Mechanisms: A Study of Rainfed Rice in Eastern India. IRRI Discussion Paper Series, pp. 1–35Google Scholar
  66. Pantuwan G, FS ukai, M Cooper, S Rajatasereekul, JC O’Toole, 2002. Yield response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes to different types of drought under rainfed lowlands. Part 3. Plant factors contributing to drought resistance. Field Crops Res. 73: 181–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pearson GA, AD Ayers, DL Eberhard. 1966. Relative salt tolerance of rice during germination and early seedling development. Soil Sci. 102: 151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Poonamperuma FN, AK Bandyopadhya, 1980 Soil salinity as constraints on food production in the humid tropics. In: Soil Related Constraints to Food Production in the Tropics, IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines, p. 203–216.Google Scholar
  69. Prasad SR, PG Bagali, S Hittalmani, HE Shashidhar. 2000. Molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with seedling tolerance to salt stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Curr Sci 78: 162–164Google Scholar
  70. Price AH, AD Tomos. 1997. Genetics dissection of root growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.) II: Mapping quantitative trait loci using molecular markers. Thero Appl Genet 95:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Price AH, J Townend, MP Jones, A Audebert, B Courtois. 2002. Mapping QTLs associated with drought avoidance in upland rice grown in the Philippines and West Africa. Plant Mol Biol. 48(5–6):683–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Price AH, AD Tomos and DS Virk. 1997. Genetic dissection of root growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.) I: a hydrophonic screen. Theor Appl Genet 95: 132–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Price AH, KA Steele, BJ Moore, PB Barraclough, LJ Clark. 2000. A combined RFLP and AFLP linkage map of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) used to identify QTLs for root-penetration ability. Theor Appl Genet 100:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Quarrie SA, DA Laurie, J Zhu, C Lebreton, A Semikhodskii, A Steed, H Witsenboer, C Calestani. 1997. QTL analysis to study the association between leaf size and abscisic acid accumulation in droughted rice leaves and comparisons across cereals. Plant Mol Biol. 35(1–2):155–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rajanaidu N, and AH Zakri. 1988. Breeding for morpho-physiological traits in crop plants. In: Zakri A.H.(ed) Plant breeding and Genetic Engineering. SABRAO publishers. pp. 116–139Google Scholar
  76. Ray JD, L Yu, SR McCouch, MC Champoux, G Wang, HT. Nguyen. 1996. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with root penetration ability in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 92:627–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ren Zhong-Hai, Gao Ji-Ping, Li Le-Gong, Cai Xiu-Ling, Huang Wei, Chao Dai-Yin, Zhu Mei-Zhen, Wang Zong-Yang, Luan Sheng, Lin Hong-Xuan. 2005. A rice quantitative trait locus for salt tolerance encodes a sodium transporter. Nature Genetics 37(10):1141–1146Google Scholar
  78. Richards RA. 1983. Should selection for yield in saline regions be made in saline or non-saline soils. Euphytica 32:431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Robin S, MS Pathan, B Courtois, R Lafitte, S Carandang, S Lanceras, M Amante, HT Nguyen, Z Li. 2003. Mapping osmotic adjustment in an advanced back-cross inbred population of rice. Theor Appl Genet. 107(7):1288–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rood MA. 2000. Monitoring levels in tail water recovery system can save yields. Rice Journal 103(1):12–13Google Scholar
  81. Shannon MC. 1985. Principles and strategies in breeding for higher salt tolerance. Plant Soil 89: 227–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shen L, B Courtois, K McNally, S Robin, ZK Li. 2001. Evaluation of near-isogenic lines of rice introgressed with QTLs for root traits through marker-aided selection. Theor Appl Genet 103:70–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Singh AK, D Singh, SP Rathi, JL Dwivedi, PK Sinha, NP Mandal, D Tao, and G Atlin. 2004. International Aerobic Rice Variety Trial, 2003 Annual Report of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biotechnology Division, pp. 16–17, the International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, the PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  84. Steele KA, AH Price, HE Shashidhar, JR Witcombe. 2006. Marker-assisted selection to introgress into an Indian upland rice variety, Theor Appl Genet 112: 208–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Takehisa H, T Shimodate, Y Fukuta, T Ueda, M Yano, T Yamaya, T Kameya and T Sato 2004. Identification of quantitative trait loci for plant growth of rice in paddy field flooded with salt water. Field Crops Research 89:85–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tal M. 1985. Genetics of salt tolerance in higher plants: theoretical and applied considerations. Plant and soils 89: 199–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tripathy JN, J Zhang, S Robin and HT Nguyen. 2000. QTLs for cell-membrane stability mapped in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under drought stress. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100: 1197–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tuong TP, BAM Bouman, and M Mortimer. 2005. More rice, less water – integrated approaches for increasing water productivity in irrigated rice-based systems in Asia. Plant Production Science 8(3): 231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Venuprasad R, HE Shashidhar, S Hittalmani and GS Hemamalini. 2002. Tagging quantitative trait loci associated with grain yield and root morphological traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under contrasting moisture regimes. Euphytica 128:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Venuprasad R, HR Lafitte, and GN Atlin. 2006. Response to direct selection for grain yield under drought stress in rice. Crop Sci. (in press)Google Scholar
  91. Xu JL, HR Lafitte, YM Gao, BY Fu, R Torres, and ZK Li. 2005. QTLs for drought avoidance and tolerance identified in a set of random introgression lines of rice. Theor Appl Genet 111:1642–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yadav R, B Courtois, N Huang, and G McLaren. 1997. Mapping genes controlling root morphology and root distribution in a doubled-haploid population of rice. Theor Appl Genet (1997) 94: 619–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yeo AR. 1994. Physiological criteria in screening and breeding. In: A. R. Yeo and T. J. Flowers (eds) Soil mineral stresses: Approaches to crop improvement. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 37–57Google Scholar
  94. Yeo AR, and TJ Flowers. 1984. Mechanisms of salinity resistance in rice and their roles as physiological criteria in plant breeding. In: Staples RC, GH Toenniessen eds. Salinity tolerance in plants strategies for crop improvemet. New York: John wiley-interscience. Pp.151–170Google Scholar
  95. Yu SB, WJ Xu, CHM Vijayakumar, J Ali, BY Fu, JL Xu, R Marghirang, J Domingo, YZ Jiang, C Aquino, SS Virmani, ZK Li. 2003 Molecular diversity and multilocus organization of the parental lines used in the International Rice Molecular Breeding Program. Theor. Appl. Genet. 108:131–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yue Bing, Lizhong Xiong, Weiya Xue, Yongzhong Xing, Lijun Luo, Caiguo Xu. 2005 Genetic analysis for drought resistance in field with different types of soil. Theor Appl Genet 111: 1127–1136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yue Bing, Weiya Xue, Lizhong Xiong, Xinqiao Yu, Lijun Luo, Kehui Cui, Deming Jin, Yongzhong Xing, and Qifa Zhang. 2006. Genetic basis of drought resistance at reproductive stage in rice: separation of drought tolerance from drought avoidance. Genetics 172: 1213–1228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zaidem ML, RD Mendoza, EBTumimbang, IA Duka, and GB Gregorio. 2004. Genetic variability of salinity tolerance at different growth stages of rice, in PBGB 2003 Annual Report: pp. 19–20, International Rice Research Institute, Las Banos, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  99. Zhang GY, G Yan, SL Chen, SY Chen. 1995. RFLP tagging of a salt tolerance gene. Plant Science 110 (2):227–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhang J, HG Zheng, A Aarti, G Pantuwan, TT Nguyen, JN Tripathy, AK Sarial, S Robin, RC Babu, BD Nguyen, S Sarkarung, A Blum, HT Nguyen. 2001. Locating genomic regions associated with components of drought resistance in rice: comparative mapping within and across species. Theor Appl Genet 103:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zheng HG, RC Babu, P MS athan, L Ali, N Huang, B Courtois, HT Nguyen. 2000. Quantitative trait loci for root-penetration ability and root thickness in rice: comparison of genetic backgrounds. Genome 43(1):53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zou GH, HW Mei, HY Liu, GL Liu, SP Hu, XQ Yu, MS Li, JH Wu, LJ Luo. 2005. Grain yield responses to moisture regimes in a rice population: association among traits and genetic markers. Theor Appl Genet. 112(1):106–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhi-Kang Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jian-Long Xu
    • 2
  1. 1.International Rice Research InstituteDAPO Box 7777Philippines
  2. 2.Institute of Crop Sciences/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic ImprovementChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesPhilippines

Personalised recommendations