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The MPE X-ray test facility PANTER: Calibration of hard X-ray (15–50 kev) optics

  • M. J. FreybergEmail author
  • H. Bräuninger
  • W. Burkert
  • G. D. Hartner
  • O. Citterio
  • F. Mazzoleni
  • G. Pareschi
  • D. Spiga
  • S. Romaine
  • P. Gorenstein
  • B. D. Ramsey

Abstract

The Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany, uses its large X-ray beam line facility PANTER for testing X-ray astronomical instrumentation. A number of telescopes, gratings, filters, and detectors, e.g. for astronomical satellite missions like Exosat, ROSAT, Chandra (LETG), BeppoSAX, SOHO (CDS), XMM-Newton, ABRIXAS, Swift (XRT), have been successfully calibrated in the soft X-ray energy range (<15keV). Moreover, measurements with mirror test samples for new missions like ROSITA and XEUS have been carried out at PANTER. Here we report on an extension of the energy range, enabling calibrations of hard X-ray optics over the energy range 15–50 keV. Several future X-ray astronomy missions (e.g., Simbol-X, Constellation-X, XEUS) have been proposed, which make use of hard X-ray optics based on multilayer coatings. Such optics are currently being developed by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (OAB), Milano, Italy, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), Cambridge, MA, USA. These optics have been tested at the PANTER facility with a broad energy band beam (up to 50 keV) using the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn flight spare CCD camera with its good intrinsic energy resolution, and also with monochromatic X-rays between C-K (0.277 keV) and Cu-Kα (8.04 keV).

Keywords

X-ray astronomy X-ray telescopes X-ray optics X-ray detectors Multilayers Calibration 

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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Freyberg
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Bräuninger
    • 1
  • W. Burkert
    • 1
  • G. D. Hartner
    • 1
  • O. Citterio
    • 2
  • F. Mazzoleni
    • 2
  • G. Pareschi
    • 2
  • D. Spiga
    • 2
  • S. Romaine
    • 3
  • P. Gorenstein
    • 3
  • B. D. Ramsey
    • 4
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische PhysikPANTER X-ray Test FacilityNeuriedGermany
  2. 2.INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di BreraMerate (lc)Italy
  3. 3.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for AstrophysicsCambridgeUSA
  4. 4.Space Science DepartmentNASA/MSFCHuntsvilleUSA

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