Advertisement

Diversity patterns of Bornean butterfly assemblages

  • Daniel F. R. Cleary
  • Martin J. Genner
Chapter
Part of the Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation book series (TOBC, volume 1)

Abstract

Borneo contains a diverse rainforest butterfly community, but its forests are under threat from logging and ENSO- (El Niño Southern Oscillation) induced fires. Contrasts in butterfly assemblage structure were examined in nine 450 ha landscapes in logged forest, primary unburned continuous and isolated forest, and forest affected by surface fires during the 1997/98 ENSO event. Temporally the effect of the 1997/98 ENSO event was followed in a single burned landscape from 1997 to 2004. In total, 517 species were present in 190 sampling sites. There was a five-fold difference in species richness among landscapes, with highest richness in continuous landscapes and lowest richness in burned landscapes. Richness was also higher in logged forest than proximate unlogged forest. Temporally, species richness dropped dramatically from 1997 to 1998, but after-wards increased remaining, however, substantially lower than pre-ENSO (1997) sampling. Sites in burned landscapes were distinct from other sites in terms of vegetation structure with the slash-and-burn area the most dissimilar to other landscapes. There was much less structure among unburned landscapes. The pattern of butterfly community composition was similar to that of vegetation structure with the community from the slash-and-burn area the most distinct. However, there was much less overlap among sites from different landscapes. Temporally, 1998 possessed the most distinct assemblage when compared to assemblages from other years. The community composition was, however, slowly returning to a pre-disturbance composition. Variance in community composition explained by environmental and spatial factors differed substantially among landscapes. The spatial fraction was the only explanatory component in recently burned landscapes and a proximate small unburned isolate, but explained no variation in logged landscapes. The environmental fraction explained substantial amounts of variation in logged landscapes and the slash-and-burn area. When all landscapes were pooled high proportions of variation in butterfly community composition were explained by both geographic distance between sites and environmental variables. In contrast when only unburned landscapes were considered, most variation was explained by the geographic distance among them. Despite differences among landscapes there was a general pattern of relatively sharp decline in similarity at short distances that levels out over greater distances, a result that agrees with previous studies on other tropical species assemblages.

Key words

ENSO Forest fires Kalimantan Logging Species richness Variance partitioning 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beck J., Schulze C.H., Linsenmair K.E. and Fiedler K. 2002. From forest to farmland: diversity of geometrid moths along two habitat gradients on Borneo. J. Trop. Ecol. 18: 33–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borcard D., Legendre P. and Drapeau P. 1992. Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation. Ecology 73: 1045–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bray J.R. and Curtis J.T. 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of Southern Wisconsin. Ecol. Monogr. 27: 325–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Casgrain P. 2001. Permute! 3.4.9. User’s Manual. Freely available at: http://www.fas.umontreal.ca/biol/casgrain/en/labo/permute/index.html.Google Scholar
  5. Caswell H. 1976. Community structure: a neutral model analysis. Ecol. Monogr. 46: 327–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clarke K.R. and Gorley R.N. 2001. Primer v5: user manual/tutorial. Primer-E Ltd, Plymouth.Google Scholar
  7. Cleary D.F.R. 2003. An examination of scale of assessment, logging and ENSO-induced fires on butterfly diversity in Borneo. Oecologia 135: 313–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cleary D.F.R. 2004. Assessing the use of butterflies as indicators of logging in Borneo at three taxonomic levels. J. Econ. Entomol. 97: 429–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cleary D.F.R. and Genner M.J. 2004. Changes in rain forest butterfly diversity following major ENSO-induced fires in Borneo. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 13: 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cleary D.F.R. and Mooers A.Ø. 2004. Butterfly species richness and community composition in forests affected by ENSO-induced burning and habitat isolation in Borneo. J. Trop. Ecol. 20: 359–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cleary D.F.R., Genner M.J., Boyle T.J.B., Setyawati T., Angraeti C.D. and Menken S.B.J. Dependence of bird species richness and composition upon local-and large-scale environmental factors in Borneo. Landscape Ecol. (in press).Google Scholar
  12. Colwell R.K. 2000. EstimateS version 6.0b1: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Freeware published at http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/EstimateS.Google Scholar
  13. Condit R., Pitman N., Leigh E.G., Chave J., Terborgh J., Foster R.B., Nunez P., Aguilar S., Valencia R., Villa G., Muller-Landau H.C., Losos E. and Hubbell S.P. 2002. Beta-diversity in tropical forest trees. Science 295: 666–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ellingsen K.E. 2002. Soft-sediment benthic biodiversity on the continental shelf in relation to environmental variability. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Series 232: 15–27.Google Scholar
  15. Harrison R.D. 2000. Repercussions of El Niño, drought causes extinction and the breakdown of mutualism in Borneo. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 267: 911–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hill J.K., Hamer K.C., Tangah J. and Dawood M. 2001. Ecology of tropical butterflies in rainforest gaps. Oecologia 128: 294–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holmgren M., Scheffer M., Ezcurra E., Gutierrez J.R. and Mohren G.M.J. 2001. El Niño effects on the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16: 89–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Howard P.C., Viskanic P., Davenport T.R.B., Kigenyi F.W., Baltzer M., Dickinson C.J., Lwanga J.S., Matthews R.A. and Balmford A. 1998. Complementarity and the use of indicator groups for reserve selection in Uganda. Nature 394: 472–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hubbell S.P. 2001. The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography. Monographs in Population Biology 32. Princeton University Press, pp. 375Google Scholar
  20. Jepson P., Jarvie J.K., MacKinnon K. and Monk K.A. 2001. The end of Indonesia’s lowland forests? Science 292: 859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Legendre P. and Gallagher E.D. 2001. Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data. Oecologia 129: 271–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Longino J.T., Coddington J. and Colwell R.K. 2002. The ant fauna of a tropical rain forest: estimating species richness three different ways. Ecology 83: 689–702.Google Scholar
  23. Margalef R. 1968. Perspectives in Ecological Theory. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 111.Google Scholar
  24. Nepstad D.C., Moreira A., Verissimo A., Lefebre P., Schlesinger P., Potter C., Nobre C., Setzer A., Krug T., Barros A.C., Alencar A. and Pereira J.R. 1998. Forest fire prediction and prevention in the Brazilian Amazon. Conserv. Biol. 12: 951–953.Google Scholar
  25. Parmesan C., Ryrholm N., Stefanescu C., Hill J.K., Thomas C.D., Descimon H., Huntley B., Kaila L., Kullberg J., Tammaru T., Tennent W.J., Thomas J.A. and Warren M. 1999. Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. Nature 399: 579–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Peltonen M., Liebold A.M., Bjørnstad O.N. and Williams D.W. 2002. Spatial synchrony in forest insect outbreaks: roles of regional stochasticity and dispersal. Ecology 83: 3120–3129.Google Scholar
  27. Plotkin J.B. and Muller-Landau H.C. 2002. Sampling the species composition of a landscape. Ecology 83: 3344–3356.Google Scholar
  28. Potts M.D., Ashton P.S., Kaufman L.S. and Plotkin J.B. 2002. Habitat patterns in tropical forests: a comparison of 105 plots in northwest Borneo. Ecology 83: 2782–2797.Google Scholar
  29. Putz F.E., Blate G.M., Redford K.H., Fimbel R. and Robinson J. 2001. Tropical forest management and conservation of biodiversity: an overview. Conserv. Biol. 15: 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ricketts T.H. 2001. The matrix matters: effective isolation in fragmented landscapes. Am. Nat. 158: 88–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rozenzweig M.L. 1995. Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 463.Google Scholar
  32. Siegert F., Ruecker G., Hinrichs A. and Hoffmann A.A. 2001. Increased damage from fires in logged forests during drought caused by El Niño. Nature 414: 437–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Slik J.W.F., Poulsen A.D., Ashton P.S., Cannon C.H., Eichhorn K.A.O., Kartawinata K., Lanniari I., Nagamasu H., Nakagawa M., van Nieuwstadt M.G.L., Payne J., Purwaningsih, Saridan A., Sidiyasa K., Verburg R.W., Webb C.O. and Wilkie P. 2003. A floristic analysis of the lowland dipterocarp forests of Borneo. J. Biogeogr. 30: 1517–1531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Spencer M., Schwartz S.S. and Blaustein L. 2002. Are there fine-scale patterns in community similarity among temporary freshwater pools? Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 11: 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Spitzer K., Jaros J., Havelka J. and Leps J. 1997. Effect of small-scale disturbance on butterfly communities of an Indochinese montane rainforest. Biol. Conserv. 80: 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sutcliffe O.L., Thomas C.D. and Moss D. 1996. Spatial synchrony and asynchrony in butterfly population dynamics. J. Anim. Ecol. 65: 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stork N.E., Srivastava D.S., Watt A.D. and Larsen T.B. 2003. Butterfly diversity and silvicultural practice in lowland rainforests of Cameroon. Biodiv. Conserv. 12: 387–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tuomisto H., Ruokolainen K. and Yli-Halla M. 2003. Dispersal, Environment, and floristic variation of western amazonian forests. Science 299: 241–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Whittaker R.H. 1965. Dominance and diversity in land plant communities. Science 147: 250–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Williams S.E., Marsh H. and Winter J. 2002. Spatial scale, species diversity, and habitat structure: small mammals in Australian tropical rain forest. Ecology 83: 1317–1329.Google Scholar
  41. Willott S.J., Lim D.C., Compton S.G. and Sutton S.L. 2000. Effects of selective logging on the butterflies of a Bornean rainforest. Conserv. Biol. 14: 1055–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel F. R. Cleary
    • 1
    • 2
  • Martin J. Genner
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem DynamicsUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of InvertebratesNational Museum of Natural HistoryLeidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of HullUK

Personalised recommendations