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Learning Cycles: Transition Policies for a New Logic of Compulsory Schooling in Brazil

  • Elba Siqueira de Sá Barretto
  • Sandra Zákia Souza
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE, volume 19)

The idea underlying learning cycles is to correct the school fragmentation arising from the grading system by adopting a flexible school work organization. It is argued that this best fits the learning needs of compulsory school students, since it is able to avoid repetition between one or more academic years.

Learning cycles started to develop in Brazil in the middle of the last century. At that time, Brazil was one of the countries presenting the highest retention levels in Latin America according to educational statistics: schools retained almost 60% of the students who were supposed to be promoted from the first to the second grade of primary school. Retention was so connected to school failure. There were many reasons to address this problem, other than political ones, such as the urgent need to make the four years of compulsory school universal, guaranteeing the Brazilian population the education required by the country’s quick pace of growth and urbanization. In order to conserve resources, it was necessary to look for alternatives that would make a greater supply of vacancies possible, since retention caused great harm to the public school system because it restricted its ability to meet the demand for education. There were also pedagogical and psychological reasons, such as the importance of fully developing students’ potential and enhancing their self-esteem.

Keywords

School System Urban School Basic Cycle Learn Cycle Primary School Student 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elba Siqueira de Sá Barretto
    • 1
  • Sandra Zákia Souza
    • 1
  1. 1.University of São PauloBrazil

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