Non-metric variation in recent humans as a model for understanding Neanderthal-early modern human differences: just how “unique” are Neanderthal unique traits?

  • J. C. M. Ahern
Part of the Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology book series (VERT)

Using living humans as an extant referent, this paper examines the probability that the frequency differences in Neanderthal “unique” non-metric traits observed between Neanderthals and Upper Paleolithic modern humans could be sampled from two major populations of the same species. Neanderthal-like features occur in very low frequencies in living humans, if present at all. Rather, other features distinguish major human populations. The population frequency differences of these features are used as a model by which the Neanderthal — Upper Paleolithic frequency differences are assessed using a resampling simulation. This methodological approach tests the null hypothesis that the observed Neanderthal — Upper Paleolithic differences are not greater than what can be sampled from between two major human populations (Amerindians and Euroamericans). Results of the analysis fail to falsify this null hypothesis. Implications of these results for Neanderthal taxonomy are examined.

Keywords

Neanderthals Species Systematics Apomorphies Non-Metrics Human Evolution Modern Human Origins 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahern, J.C.M., Hawks, J.D., Lee, S-H., 2005. Neanderthal taxonomy reconsidered…again: a response to Harvati et al. (2004). J. Hum. Evol. 48, 647–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antón, S., 1996. Tendon-associated bone features of the masticatory system in Neandertals. J. Hum. Evol. 31, 391–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bräuer, G., 1989, The evolution of modern humans: a comparison of the African and non-African evidence. In: Stringer, C.B., Mellars, P. (Eds.), The Human Revolution. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 121–154.Google Scholar
  4. Bräuer, G., Brög, H., 1998. On the degree of Neanderthal-modern continuity in the earliest Upper Palaeolithic crania from the Czech Republic: evidence from non-metrical features. In: Omoto, K., Tobias, P.V. (Eds.), Origins and Past of Modern Humans: Towards Reconciliation, World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 106–125.Google Scholar
  5. Cartmill, M., Smith, F.H., Brown, K.B., in press. The Human Lineage, Wiley-Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Cathey, J.C., Bickham, J.W., Patton, J.C., 1998. Introgressive hybridization and nonconcordant evolutionary history of maternal and paternal lineages in North American deer. Evolution 52, 1224–1229. Coon, C.S., 1962. The Origin of the Races. Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Cracraft, J., 1989. Speciation and its ontology: the empirical consequences of alternative species concepts for understanding patterns and processes of differentiation. In: Otte, D., Endler, D. (Eds.), Speciation and its Consequences. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 28–59.Google Scholar
  8. Crawford, M.H., 1998. The Origins of Native Americans: Evidence from Anthropological Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cronquist, A., 1978. Once again, what is a species? In: Knutson, L.V. (Ed.), BioSystematics in Agriculture. Allenheld Osmun, Montclair, NJ, pp. 3–20.Google Scholar
  10. Diamond, J., 1997. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. W.W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Dobyns, H.F., 1983. Disease transfer at contact. Ann. Rev. Anthropol. 22, 273–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Franciscus, R.G., 1999. Neanderthal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract “specialization”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 1805–1809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Franciscus, R., Trinkaus, E., 1995. Determinants of retromolar space presence in Pleistocene Homo mandibles. J. Hum. Evol. 28, 577–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frayer, D.W., 1992a. The persistence of Neanderthal features in post-Neanderthal Europeans. In: Bräuer, G., Smith, F.H. (Eds.), Continuity or Replacement: Controversies in Homo sapiens Evolution. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 179–188.Google Scholar
  15. Frayer, D.W., 1992b. Evolution at the European edge: Neanderthal and Upper Paleolithic relationships. Préhistoire Européenne 2, 9–69.Google Scholar
  16. Frayer, D.W., Wolpoff, M.H., Thorne, A.G., Smith, F.H., Pope, G.G., 1993. Theories of modern human origins: the paleontological test. Am. Anthropol. 95, 14–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gill, G.W., Rhine, S. (Eds.), 1990. Skeletal Attribution of Race: Methods for Forensic Anthropology. Anthropol. papers Maxwell Mus. Anthropol. 4, 47–53.Google Scholar
  18. Haile-Selassie, Y., Asfaw, B., White, T.D., 2004. Hominid cranial remains from Upper Pleistocene deposits at Aduma, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 123, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hawks, J., Wolpoff, M.H., 2001, Brief communication: paleoanthropology and the population genetics of ancient genes. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 114, 269–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harvati, K., 2003. The Neanderthal taxonomic position: models of intra- and inter-specific craniofacial variation. J. Hum. Evol. 44, 107–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harvati, K., Frost, S.R., McNulty, K.P., 2004. Neanderthal taxonomy reconsidered: implications of 3D primate models of intra- and interspecific differences. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 1147–1152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harvati, K., Frost, S.R., McNulty, K.P., 2005. Neandertal variation and taxonomy – a reply to Ackerman (2005) and Ahern et al. (2005). J. Hum. Evol. 48, 653–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Henneberg, M., De Miguel, C., 2004. Hominins are a single lineage: brain and body size variability does not reflect postulate taxonomic diversity of hominins. HOMO 55, 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hochberg, Y., 1988. A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance. Biometrika 75, 800–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holborow, A.A., 2002. The zygomaticomaxillary suture: a study of the frequencies of suture shapes within various major populations of Homo sapiens. M.A. Thesis, University of Wyoming.Google Scholar
  26. Holliday, T.W., 2003. Species concepts, reticulation, and human evolution. Curr. Anthropol. 44, 653–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hrdlička, A., 1920, Shovel-shaped teeth. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 3, 429–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hublin, J.-J., 1978. Quelques caractères apomorphes du crâne néandertalien et leur interprétation phylogénique. C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris 287, 923–926.Google Scholar
  29. Hublin, J.-J., 1980. La Chaise Suard, Engis 2, et La Quina H 18: développement de la morphologie externe chez l’enfant prénéandertalien et néandertalien. C. r. Acad. Sci., Paris 291, 669–672.Google Scholar
  30. Jabbour, R.S., Richards, G.D., Anderson, J.Y., 2002. Mandibular condyle traits in Neanderthals and other Homo: a comparative, correlative, and ontogenetic study. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 119, 144–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jolly, C.J., 2001. A proper study for mankind: analogies from the papionin monkeys and their implications for human evolution. Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 44, 177–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kimbel, W.H., Martin, L.B. (Eds.), 1993. Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Kimbel, W.H., Rak, Y., 1993, The importance of species in paleoanthropology and an argument for the phylogenetic concept of the species category. In: Kimbel. W.H., Martin, L. (Eds.), Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution. Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kramer, A., Crummett, T.L., Wolpoff, M.H., 2001. Out of Africa and into the Levant: replacement or admixture in Western Asia? Quatern. Int. 75, 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mayden, R.L., 1997. A hierarchy of species concepts: the denouement in the saga of the species problem. In: Claridge, M.F., Dawah, H.A., Wilson, M.R. (Eds.), Species: The Units of Biodiversity. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  36. Oswalt, W.H., 2006. This Land Was Theirs. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Pollitzer, W.S., Phelps, D.S., Waggoner, R.E., Leyshon, W.C., 1967. Catawba Indians: Morphology, genetics, history. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 26, 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Post, R.H., Neel, J.V., Schull, W.J., 1968. Tabulations of phenotype and gene frequencies for 11 different genetic systems studied in American Indians. In: Biomedical Challenges Presented by the American Indians, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C., pp. 141–185.Google Scholar
  39. Quam, R., Smith, F.H. 1998. A reassessment of the Tabun C2 mandible. In: Akazawa, T., Aoki, K., Bar-Yosef, O. (Eds.), Neanderthals and Modern Humans in Western Asia, Plenum, New York, pp. 405–421.Google Scholar
  40. Rak, Y., 1993. Morphological variation in Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens in the Levant: a biogeographic model. In: Kimbel, W.H., Martin, L. (Eds.), Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution. Plenum, New York, pp. 523–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rak, Y., 1998. Does any Mousterian cave present evidence of two hominid species? In: Akazawa, T., Aoki, K., Bar-Yosef, O. (Eds.), Neanderthals and Modern Humans in Western Asia. Plenum, New York, pp. 353–366.Google Scholar
  42. Rak, Y., Kimbel, W.H., Hovers, E., 1994. A Neanderthal infant from Amud Cave, Israel. J. Hum. Evol. 26, 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rak, Y., Ginzburg, A., Geffen, E., 2002. Does Homo neanderthalensis play a role in modern human ancestry? The mandibular evidence. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 119, 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rawlings, K.J., 2002. Racial variation in palate shape and form of the transverse palatine suture. M.A. Thesis, University of Wyoming.Google Scholar
  45. Richards, G.D., Plourde, A. M., 1995. Reconsideration of the “Neandertal” infant, Amud-7. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 20 (Suppl.), 180–181 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  46. Santa-Luca, A., 1978. A re-examination of presumed Neanderthal-like fossils. J. Hum. Evol. 7, 619–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schwartz, J. H., Tattersall, I., 1996. Significance of some previously unrecognized apomorphies in the nasal region of Homo neanderthalensis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 10852–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Smith, F.H., Falsetti, A.B., Donnelly, S.M., 1989. Modern human origins. Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 32, 35–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stefan, V.H., Trinkaus, E., 1998. Discrete trait and dental morphometric affinities of the Tabun 2 mandible. J. Hum. Evol. 34, 443–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stringer, C.B., 1992. Replacement, continuity and the origin of Homo sapiens. In: Bräuer, G. Smith, F.H. (Eds.), Continuity or Replacement: Controversies in Homo sapiens Evolution. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 9–24.Google Scholar
  51. Stringer, C.B., Andrews, P., 1988. Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans. Science 239, 1263–1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stringer, C.B., Gamble, C., 1993. In Search of the Neanderthals. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  53. Stringer, C.B., Hublin J.J., Vandermeersh, B., 1984. The origin of anatomically modern humans in Western Europe. In: Smith, F.H., Spencer, F. (Eds.), The Origins of Modern Humans: a World Survey of the Fossil Evidence. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 51–135.Google Scholar
  54. Szathmary, E.J.E., Auger, F., 1983. Biological distances and genetic relationships within Algonkians. In: Steegman, A.T. (Ed.), Boreal Forest Adaptations. Plenum, New York, pp. 289–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tattersall, I., Schwartz, J., 1998. Morphology, paleoanthropology, and Neanderthals. Anat. Rec. 253, 113–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Templeton, A.R., 1989. The meaning of species and speciation: a genetic perspective. In: Otte, D., Endler, J.A. (Eds.), Speciation and Its Consequences. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  57. Thornton, R., 1987. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
  58. Thornton, R. (1997) Aboriginal North American population and rates of decline, ca. A.D. 1500–1900. Curr. Anthropol. 38, 310–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Trinkaus, E., 2004. Eyasi 1 and the Suprainiac Fossa. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 124, 28–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Trinkaus, E., LeMay, M., 1982. Occipital bunning among later Pleistocene hominids. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 57, 127–135.Google Scholar
  61. Trinkaus, E., Shipman, P., 1993. The Neanderthals: Changing the Image of Mankind. Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Trinkaus, E., Zilhão, J, 2002. Phylogenetic implications. In: Zilhão, J., Trinkaus, E. (Eds.), Portrait of the artist as a child. The Gravettian human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho and its archeological context. Trabalhos Arqueologia 22. Instituto Portugues de Arqueologia, Lisbon, pp. 497–518.Google Scholar
  63. Trinkaus, E., Milota, S., Rodrigo, R., Mircea, G., Moldovan, O., 2003. Early modern human cranial remains from the Peştera cu Oase, Romania. J. Hum. Evol. 45, 245–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ubelaker, D.H., 1988. North American Indian population size, A.D. 1500 to 1895. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 77, 289–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wiley, E.O., 1981. Phylogenetics: The Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  66. Williams, R.C., Long, J., Hanson, R.L., Sievers, M.L., Knowler, W.C., 2000. Individual estimates of European genetic admixture associated with lower body-mass index, plasma glucose, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66, 527–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Willson, G.F., 2004. Variation in the lower mid-face of three American skeletal populations. M.A. Thesis, University of Wyoming.Google Scholar
  68. Wissler, C., 1931. Observations on the face and teeth of North American Indians. Anthropol. Papers Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 33, 22–23.Google Scholar
  69. Wolpoff, M.H., 1999. Paleoanthropology. McGraw- Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Wolpoff, M.H., Frayer, D.W., 2005. Unique ramus anatomy for Neanderthals? Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 128, 245–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wolpoff, M.H., Hawks, J.D., Caspari, R., 2000. Multiregional, not multiple origins. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112, 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wolpoff, M.H., Mannheim, B., Mann, A., Hawks, J., Caspari, R., Rosenberg, K., Frayer, D.W., Gill, G.W., Clark, G., 2004. Why not the Neanderthals? World Archaeol. 36, 527–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. M. Ahern
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA

Personalised recommendations